Cases reported "Mucopolysaccharidosis VI"

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1/9. umbilical cord blood transplantation for Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI).

    Severe Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI) is usually fatal by early adulthood. bone marrow transplantation is the only form of definitive enzyme replacement therapy available. A 5-year-old boy with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome has successful recovery of bone marrow and enzymatic functions after umbilical cord blood transplant from his unaffected HLA-identical brother. Busulphan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) were used as preparative chemotherapy with short methotrexate and long cyclosporin as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A total of 6.08 x 10(7)/kg nucleated cells and 2.92 x 10(5)/kg CD34 cells were transplanted with neutrophil engraftment achieved on day 26. There was no evidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Fifteen months after transplant, a normal level of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase activity was achieved despite mixed chimerism. There was clinical improvement of hepatosplenomegaly, facial and skin features, joint mobility and resolution of suppurative middle ear effusion. He returned to school and continued to perform well in academic studies. We report here the first successful umbilical cord blood transplant as treatment of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome.
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2/9. Long-term follow-up of corneal graft survival following bone marrow transplantation in the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MLS, mucopolysaccharidosis [MPS] type VI) who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for gene transfer at the age of 13, and penetrating keratoplasty at the age of 17, and maintained clear corneal grafts bilaterally for 13 years. To our knowledge, this is the longest follow-up reported on corneal graft survival in a patient with MLS and BMT. methods: In 1982, BMT was successfully performed on a 13-year-old girl with MLS with growth retardation, typical facial features, skeletal and joint deformities, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and corneal clouding. corneal transplantation was done on the left eye in 1986, and on the right eye in 1987 (6 months later) without difficulty or complication. RESULTS: Thirteen years postoperatively, the patient was systemically well, and both eyes retained clear corneal grafts. CONCLUSION: BMT retarded further dysfunction from MLS, and the corneal transplants retained clarity. Further controlled studies with longer follow-up are required to establish the efficacy of BMT in ocular manifestations of MPS or MLS.
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3/9. Deficiency of arylsulfatase B in 2 brothers aged 40 and 38 years (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, type B).

    Two brothers, aged 40 and 38 years, suffered from dysplastic features, coarse facies, bone and skeletal abnormalities, deformities of spine, and joint impairments. Body heights were 168 and 164 cm, respectively. Enlargement of liver and spleen, cardiac insufficiency, marked corneal clouding, and hernias were absent. Both patients had signs of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy (tetraspastic syndrome). vacuoles, acid phosphatase-positive granules, and metachromatic inclusions were found in peripheral lymphocytes; granulocytes and monocytes contained azurophilic hypergranulation. By electron microscopy, clear membrane-bound vacuoles were noted in lymphocytes (but not in neurtrophils), fibroblasts, schwann cells, mural cells of the vasculature, and epidermal cells. leukocytes, urine, and cultured skin fibroblasts revealed a deficiency of arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate sulfatase). The 6-year-old daughter of one of the patients has an intermediate level of this enzyme. fibroblasts exhibited a constant intracellular accumulation of 35S-labeled mucopolysaccharides. The urine of one of the brothers showed an abnormal mucopolysacchariduria; in both, the presence of urinary dermatan sulfate could be demonstrated. These findings conform to the mild B variant of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome with high longevity.
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4/9. early diagnosis of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome in two patients with accelerated growth and advanced bone maturation.

    The diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI is usually not made before the age of 2 or 3 years when the main clinical signs of dwarfed stature, skeletal deformities, coarsening facies, stiff joints and hepatosplenomegaly described in textbooks are recognisable. Conversely, accelerated growth with advanced bone age, a precocious feature of this condition although not suggestive of a storage disorder, is usually neither recognised, nor adequately interpreted. We report on two infants with MPS VI who presented with these two "unexpected" features within the 1st year of life. CONCLUSION: Recognition of precocious excessive growth in a mucopolysaccharidosis enables an early diagnosis, the prime responsibility of the clinician, in order to propose early treatment like bone marrow transplantation or active recombinant sulphatase therapy, and appropriate genetic counselling.
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5/9. Congenital malformations. cleft palate, congenital heart disease, absent tibiae, and polydactyly.

    A girl had cleft palate, micrognathia, Wormian bones, congenital heart disease, dislocated hips, absent tibiae, bowed fibulae, preaxial polydactyly of the feet, and abnormal dermal patterns at birth. She was born after a pregnancy complicated by exposure to multiple medications. This combination of malformations may represent a distinct entity unrelated to the medication or may be a complication of the intrauterine drug exposure.
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6/9. Bone-marrow transplantation in the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI). Biochemical and clinical status 24 months after transplantation.

    A 13-year-old girl with the severe form of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI, arylsulfatase B deficiency) has had successful reconstitution with bone marrow from her HLA-MLC-matched sister who had normal arylsulfatase B activity. Full engraftment has been present for 24 months. The following biochemical and clinical changes have occurred: arylsulfatase B activity in peripheral lymphocytes and granulocytes increased to normal levels, and the activity in serial liver-biopsy specimens increased from about 3 per cent of the mean normal level 43 days after transplantation to about 16 per cent at 600 days. Urinary excretion of acid mucopolysaccharide decreased. Ultrastructural evidence of accumulated dermatan sulfate was no longer detectable in bone-marrow cells; in peripheral-blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, or platelets; or in Ito cells of liver. Twenty-four months after engraftment, hepatosplenomegaly was substantially decreased and cardiopulmonary function was normal. visual acuity and joint mobility were also improved. The patient returned to school and continued to perform well in academic studies. Thus, bone-marrow transplantation provided a source of enzymatically normal cells, which have altered the metabolic and clinical course of the disease.
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7/9. The Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome of micrognathia and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia at birth with subsequent normal growth.

    Two patients are reported with the clinical and roentgenographic findings of the Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome. The features are neonatal micrognathia (pierre robin syndrome), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia with dumbbell shaped femur and humeri. The bone changes tend to regress and there is normal growth on serial studies. A third case seemed at birth to show similar roentgenographic changes but was dwarfed; serial observations revealed him to be a case of the Kniest syndrome with micrognathia as an added feature. The term "micrognathic dwarfism" suggested by Maroteaux is probably best aboided since it will inevitably include a variety of conditions, only some of which are associated with dwarfism.
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8/9. Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation for inborn errors of metabolism: a study of four patients with lysosomal storage diseases.

    Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were evaluated in patients with I-cell disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome or Hunter syndrome (mild form). Donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings, and the follow-up periods were 24-71 months after BMT. The enzyme activities were increased in leukocytes, plasma or liver tissues compared with pre-BMT levels. A patient with I-cell disease acquired development of 4-8 month old infants and showed no further progression in cardiac dysfunctions. A patient with MLD showed a decelerated disease progression and an improved peripheral neuropathy, but progressive brain atrophy was not prevented. patients with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome or Hunter syndrome showed improvements in hepatomegaly, joint contractures, short stature and tight skin, and this greatly increased their quality of life. These results indicated that the long-term therapeutic effects achieved by BMT were subject to multiple factors including biochemical improvements, a reversibility of affected tissues, or advanced states of disease and central nervous system impairments in inborn errors of metabolism.
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9/9. Allogeneic CD34 selected peripheral stem cell transplant for Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI): rapid haemopoietic and biochemical reconstitution.

    Severe Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is usually fatal in teenage or early adult life. Until recently, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was the only form of enzyme replacement. We report the first successful transplant using CD34 selected, mobilised allogeneic blood cells for an inborn error of metabolism. A busulphan, cyclophosphamide, melphalan and antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen was used as myeloablative therapy. Allogeneic CD34 selected granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilised blood cells from a HLA-identical sibling were used for the transplant. Haemopoietic reconstitution occurred on day 10 post-transplant with normal N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase levels. Infectious and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) complications were minimal. We suggest that CD34 selected, mobilised allogeneic blood cells are a safe form of enzyme replacement therapy in Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome and should be considered in other metabolic diseases where the benefits of haemopoietic transplantation are proven.
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