Cases reported "Mucormycosis"

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1/152. mucormycosis, a threatening opportunistic mycotic infection.

    mucormycosis is a rare and invasive mycotic opportunistic infection, occurring mostly in predisposed patients, mainly diabetics and immunocompromised individuals. The evolution of this fungal infection is frequently fatal unless aggressive treatment is started, or predisposing factors are handled. Our first patient was a known diabetic who had ketoacidotic coma at admission, complicated with pulmonary mucormycosis, and needed surgical resection followed by antimycotic therapy. The second patient did not survive his severe aplastic anemia (with neutropenia) and hemochromatosis (treated with desferrioxamine), complicated with a systemic rhizopus infection, despite treatment with amphotericin b and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factors.
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2/152. mucormycosis of the central airways: CT findings in three patients.

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings are described in three diabetic patients with central airways mucormycosis. The CT findings of the tracheobronchial mucormycosis include enhancing areas of mural thickening (n = 3), luminal narrowing (n = 3), intramural air (n = 3), low-attenuation nonenhancing bronchial wall thickening (n = 2), and bronchonodal fistula formation (n = 1). These CT features in a diabetic patient should raise a high index of suspicion for tracheobronchial mucormycosis, particularly when typical radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis are absent.
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3/152. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: a case of a rare, but deadly disease.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the nasal cavity and sinuses that can spread to the orbits and cranium within days. Its presentation can be confused with those of sinusitis, viral infections, diabetic ketoacidosis, or carotid sinus thrombosis, and it is often missed at early presentation. survival is directly linked to early detection and treatment. We present a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and discuss the literature on its early signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment options.
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keywords = diabetic
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4/152. mucormycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: report of five cases and review of the role of iron overload in the pathogenesis.

    In a 10-year consecutive series of 263 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, we identified five cases (1.9%) of invasive mucormycosis. Only one infection occurred within the first 100 days after transplantation, while the remainder complicated the late post-transplant course (median day of diagnosis: 343). Sites of infection were considered 'non-classical' and included pulmonary, cutaneous and gastric involvement. No case of fungal dissemination was observed. mucormycosis was the primary cause of death in three of the five patients. Corticosteroid-treated graft-versus-host disease, either acute or chronic, or severe neutropenia were present in all cases. However, compared with a matched control population, the most striking finding was the demonstration of severe iron overload in each of the mucormycosis patients. The mean level of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and number of transfused units of red cells (2029 microg/l, 92% and 52 units, respectively) in the study group is significantly higher compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The difference with other risk groups for mucormycosis, including deferoxamine-treated dialysis patients and acidotic diabetics, was analyzed in view of the possible pathogenic role of iron. Although these infections are often fatal, limited disease may have a better prognosis if diagnosed early and treated aggressively.
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keywords = diabetic
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5/152. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis: a diagnosis to consider.

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is a deep fungal infection, mainly seen in diabetics and immunocompromised subjects. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are necessary to avoid fatal outcome. We describe the complete histopathological and microbiological studies of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a 74-year-old man with several risk factors, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory acidosis, hemolytic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and iatrogenic diabetes, due to corticosteroid therapy. He developed two cutaneous necrotic scars on his left leg. mucormycosis was suspected and specimens from surgical debridement were histopathologically and microbiologically studied confirming the clinical diagnosis. amphotericin b was given topically and intravenously resulting in complete healing of the ulcer. risk factors and microbiological studies are compared with those in the current literature. It is necessary in certain cases to suspect mucormycosis infections in diabetics, immunocompromised subjects and even in healthy individuals. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are important, but they should be based on complete histopathological and microbiological studies, to establish the genus of the causal agent.
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keywords = diabetic
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6/152. Long-term survival of a patient with invasive cranial base rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with combined endovascular, surgical, and medical therapies: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a clinical syndrome resulting from an opportunistic infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. The prognosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis, once considered uniformly fatal, remains poor. Even with early diagnosis and aggressive surgical and medical therapy, the mortality rate is high. We present a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses and cranial base who experienced long-term survival after multimodality treatment. Clinical characteristics of the disease are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old diabetic man presented with invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, right middle fossa, and right cavernous sinus. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent endovascular sacrifice of the involved carotid artery and radical resection of the cranial base, including exenteration of the cavernous sinus. Reconstruction with a local muscle flap was performed. He continued to receive intravenous and intrathecal administration of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival with invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis is rare, but possible, with aggressive multimodality treatment, including carotid sacrifice for en bloc resection of the pathology, when indicated.
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keywords = diabetic
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7/152. Pulmonary rhizopus infection in a diabetic renal transplant recipient.

    Infectious complications after renal transplantation remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. mucormycosis is a rare infection in renal transplant recipients; however, mortality is exceedingly high. risk factors predisposing to this disease include prolonged neutropenia, diabetes, and patients who are immunosuppressed (Singh N, Gayowski T, Singh J, Yu LV. Invasive gastrointestinal zygomycosis in a liver transplant recipient: case report and review of zygomycosis in solid-organ transplant recipients, Clin Infect Dis 1995: 20: 617). life-threatening infections can occur, as this fungus has the propensity to invade blood vessel endothelium, resulting in hematological dissemination. We report a case of cavitary rhizopus lung infection, 2 months after renal transplantation, where the patient was treated successfully with amphotericin b and surgical resection of the lesions with preservation of his allograft function. In this era of intensified immunosuppression, we may see an increased incidence of mucormycosis in transplant population. Invasive diagnostic work-up is mandatory in case of suspicion; amphotericin b and, in selected cases, surgical resection are the mainstays of therapy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = diabetic
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8/152. Craniofacial mucormycosis following assault: an unusual presentation of an unusual disease.

    A case of craniofacial mucormycosis following assault is discussed. A female diabetic developed peri-orbital cellulitis adjacent to a scalp wound which progressed to a necrotizing fasciitis. This did not respond to treatment. Subsequently the patient developed a hemiparesis, with CT imaging showing peri-orbital and paranasal sinus inflammatory changes, evidence of cavernous sinus invasion and development of a middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The patient died shortly afterwards. The imaging findings and their relationship to the pathological spread of mucor infection are discussed.
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keywords = diabetic
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9/152. Identification of the asexual state of rhizopus species on histologic tissue sections in a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis.

    mucormycosis is an infection caused by a group of fungi in the order mucorales in the phylum Zygomycota. The most well-known form of this disease is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, which usually develops in diabetic or immunocompromised patients. The fungal hyphal elements are easily detected in biopsy specimens by direct or histologic examination. However, the confirmatory identification of the genus or species requires culture of the specimen. This article presents a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis in which presumptive identification of the genus was made without microbiologic cultures and was based on the extraordinarily rare appearance of fungal sporangia and sporangiospores in histologic tissue sections. Identification of these structures allowed an early and accurate diagnosis of rhinocerebral invasive mucormycosis.
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keywords = diabetic
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10/152. liver and brain mucormycosis in a diabetic patient type II successfully treated with liposomial amphotericin b.

    A case of liver and brain mucormycosis in a 73-y-old diabetic patient is described. The patient presented with fever and a moderate, tender hepatomegaly and a C/T scan examination of the abdomen and brain showed multiple hepatic and cerebral nodular lesions. The largest of the liver lesions was aspirated and broad hyphae of mucor were demonstrated in the purulent material obtained. The patient was treated successfully (for 40 d) with intravenous liposomal amphotericin b and then with itraconazole for 3 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a diabetic patient with both liver and brain mucormycosis who has been treated successfully.
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ranking = 3
keywords = diabetic
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