Cases reported "Mucormycosis"

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1/31. mucormycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: report of five cases and review of the role of iron overload in the pathogenesis.

    In a 10-year consecutive series of 263 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, we identified five cases (1.9%) of invasive mucormycosis. Only one infection occurred within the first 100 days after transplantation, while the remainder complicated the late post-transplant course (median day of diagnosis: 343). Sites of infection were considered 'non-classical' and included pulmonary, cutaneous and gastric involvement. No case of fungal dissemination was observed. mucormycosis was the primary cause of death in three of the five patients. Corticosteroid-treated graft-versus-host disease, either acute or chronic, or severe neutropenia were present in all cases. However, compared with a matched control population, the most striking finding was the demonstration of severe iron overload in each of the mucormycosis patients. The mean level of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and number of transfused units of red cells (2029 microg/l, 92% and 52 units, respectively) in the study group is significantly higher compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The difference with other risk groups for mucormycosis, including deferoxamine-treated dialysis patients and acidotic diabetics, was analyzed in view of the possible pathogenic role of iron. Although these infections are often fatal, limited disease may have a better prognosis if diagnosed early and treated aggressively.
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2/31. Long-term survival of a patient with invasive cranial base rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with combined endovascular, surgical, and medical therapies: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a clinical syndrome resulting from an opportunistic infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. The prognosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis, once considered uniformly fatal, remains poor. Even with early diagnosis and aggressive surgical and medical therapy, the mortality rate is high. We present a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses and cranial base who experienced long-term survival after multimodality treatment. Clinical characteristics of the disease are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old diabetic man presented with invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, right middle fossa, and right cavernous sinus. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent endovascular sacrifice of the involved carotid artery and radical resection of the cranial base, including exenteration of the cavernous sinus. Reconstruction with a local muscle flap was performed. He continued to receive intravenous and intrathecal administration of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival with invasive rhinocerebral mucormycosis is rare, but possible, with aggressive multimodality treatment, including carotid sacrifice for en bloc resection of the pathology, when indicated.
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3/31. survival after rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    OBJECTIVE: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is usually associated with a poor prognosis and is almost exclusively seen in immunocompromised patients. We report the third documented case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans (a new genus of the family Mucoraceae first isolated in 1979) in an immunocompetent individual. Orbital exenteration and radical debridement of involved adjacent structures combined with intravenous liposomal amphotericin resulted in patient survival. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHOD: A 59-year-old immunocompetent white man sustained a high-pressure water jet injury to the right inner canthus while cleaning an air conditioner filter. He later had "orbital cellulitis" develop that did not respond to antibiotics and progressed to orbital infarction. Imaging studies and biopsy results led to a diagnosis of mucormycosis. Tissue culture grew Apophysomyces elegans, a new genus of the family Mucoraceae first isolated in 1979. Orbital exenteration and radical debridement of involved adjacent structures, combined with intravenous liposomal amphotericin, resulted in patient survival. RESULTS: After orbital exenteration and debridement of involved adjacent structures along with intravenous liposomal amphotericin, our patient has remained free from relapse with long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The agent causing this case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (Apophysomyces elegans) contrasts with the three genera most commonly responsible for mucormycosis (rhizopus, Mucor, and absidia) in that infections with this agent tend to occur in warm climates, by means of traumatic inoculation, and in immunocompetent patients. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis should be considered in all patients with orbital inflammation associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies and retinal or orbital infarction, regardless of their immunologic status. A team approach to management is recommended for early, appropriate surgery and systemic antifungal agents.
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4/31. Renal mucormycosis in the hiv patient.

    mucormycosis is an increasingly recognized opportunistic infection. It usually affects patients with debilitating conditions such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and extensive burns. Mucor infection has also been described in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patients. The most common clinical presentations are the cerebral, cutaneous, and renal forms. We describe a unique case of bilateral renal mucormycosis presenting with renal failure in an hiv-infected patient. In the immunosuppressed host, a history of intravenous (IV) drug abuse associated with symptoms of pyelonephritis should alert the clinician to the possibility of mucor infection. blood and urine culture are often negative. The diagnosis is made histologically in most cases. The treatment of hiv patients with mucormycosis and renal failure includes hemodialysis, nephrectomy, and intravenous amphotericin in addition to antiretroviral therapy. Bilateral renal involvement with Mucor carries a poor prognosis.
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5/31. Successful non-surgical treatment of disseminated polymicrobial fungal infection in a patient with pancytopenia and graft-versus-host disease.

    Invasive fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation have an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical excision in combination with antifungal therapy is considered necessary for treatment, especially for central nervous system (CNS) infection. We describe successful medical management with lipid complex amphotericin b (ABLC) and itraconazole, without surgical excision, of disseminated fungal infection involving the lungs and CNS in a patient with pancytopenia and graft-versus-host disease.
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6/31. Longterm survival in acute rhinocerebral mucormycosis with giant cell arteritis and foreign body granulomas.

    A case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurring in a 41-year-old man with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus is reported. Microscopically, biopsy samples obtained from the left ethmoid and middle turbinate sinuses contained fungi that formed mycotic granulomas associated with multinucleate giant cell arteritis. The multinucleate giant cells contained broad, infrequently septate hyphase consistent with mucormycosis. The patient received surgical debridement with extenteration of the left orbit, and intravenous liposome-encapsulated amphotericin b. After 12 months, examination of the patient revealed complete healing. Multinucleate giant cell granulomas and arteritis are only exceptionally associated with rhinocerebral mucormycosis, but these histologic findings may be correlated with a progressive disease with better prognosis.
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7/31. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis in a renal transplant patient.

    The clinical course and management of a rare case of gastrointestinal mucormycosis occurring in a renal transplant patient are presented. The diagnosis was made on pathological examination of surgically resected tissue from the colon, spleen and stomach. The patient did not survive the infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 11th reported case of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in a solid organ transplant patient. The pathophysiology, incidence and prognosis of this disease are discussed.
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8/31. Lethal rhinocerebral phycomycosis in a healthy adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    A lethal case of rhino-orbital-cerebral phycomycosis (mucormycosis) in an otherwise healthy man is presented. The clinical, radiologic, and ante mortem surgical pathology associated with microbiologic examinations failed to yield the diagnosis of fungal infection as the cause of a clinical presentation of acute sphenoid sinusitis with a fulminant cavernous sinus thrombosis. No similar case report was found in review of the literature. There is a need for a high degree of suspicion in this condition to improve the uniformly poor prognosis in this devastating infectious disease. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for early tissue or microbiologic diagnosis with appropriate histologic stains and fungal cultures. Treatment consists of extensive surgical excision of all necrotic or questionably viable tissue in conjunction with alternate-day amphotericin b therapy.
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9/31. Orbital reconstruction following sino-nasal mucormycosis.

    We discuss the reconstruction of an orbit destroyed by an invasive fungal infection. Sino-nasal mucormycosis is usually associated with a poor prognosis, and occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. Serial imaging leading to repeated radical debridement, along with intravenous amphotericin, helped the patient to recover from this serious disease. A well-vascularised galeal frontalis-pericranial flap from the mid-forehead region was used to reconstruct the orbital defect.
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10/31. Paranasal sinus mucormycosis: a report of two cases.

    mucormycosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a rare invasive fungal infection, which often has a very fulminant course and characteristic clinical findings. The patients are usually immunocompromised, with diabetic ketoacidosis being the commonest underlying disorder. In some immunocompetent patients, the disease is associated with local predisposing factors, such as chronic sinusitis. Although the prognosis has improved in recent decades, the disease can still be fatal. The underlying disease is an important determinant of prognosis and correction of the metabolic disorder, if present, is essential. Herein we report two cases: one of our patients was immunocompetent but had earlier suffered from polypous rhinosinusitis whereas the other had mild adult-type diabetes. Both patients were successfully treated with surgical debridement and amphotericin b.
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