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11/301. Two tumors detected by thyroid assessment in two children.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the early detection of two tumors in two children by recognition of unusual features in initial thyroid assessments. methods: We present the clinical findings and results of laboratory studies in two children. In addition, we describe RET proto-oncogene studies in one of them. RESULTS: A 14.5-year-old boy was referred for assessment because of short stature in conjunction with lack of physical growth and development. His physical examination was remarkable for height at the 50th percentile (height age, 11.5 years), weight at the 50th percentile (weight age, 13 years), and prepubertal male status. Pertinent laboratory findings were a normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level but low free thyroxine (FT4) index. These findings prompted an immediate magnetic resonance imaging study of the head. A parasellar tumor was detected and removed; histopathologic examination revealed that it was a craniopharyngioma. The patient requires lifelong multihormonal therapy for his panhypopituitarism and has responded with physical growth. Our second patient, a 7.5-year-old girl, was referred because of a painless left thyroid nodule of 4 months' duration. Her physical examination was remarkable for (1) upper lip swelling, (2) intermittent rash, and (3) a goiter with painless mobile left and right nodules. Normal levels of TSH and FT4, serum calcitonin of 6,192 pg/mL, and a fine-needle biopsy specimen that stained strongly for calcitonin were obtained at her first clinic visit. A total thyroidectomy was performed and confirmed the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Genetic studies showed that she was positive for the RET multiple endocrine neoplasia IIB mutation. After 4 years of follow-up, the patient had serum calcitonin levels that remained low (<2.2 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: attention to thyroid physical findings and laboratory studies can promptly lead to correct diagnoses and management of some rare and life-threatening tumors in children. ( info)

12/301. Case report: somatostatin producing teratoma, causing rapidly alternating extreme hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and ovarian somatostatinoma.

    A 54-year-old woman presented with extremely fluctuating and symptomatic blood glucose levels. Very high levels of somatostatin and low levels of insulin, c-peptide, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in peripheral blood were constantly present. A benign somatostatinoma was localized by meta-iodobenzyl guanidine iodine 123 (MIBG-I(123)) scintigraphy and successfully removed encapsulated in an ovarian teratoma. The patient made a complete recovery. The case described is unique with regard to clinical symptomatology and anatomic localization of the tumor. ( info)

13/301. Surgical strategy in a kindred with a rare RET protooncogene mutation of variable penetrance with regard to multiple endocrine neoplasia.

    Prophylactic thyroidectomy is recommended for carriers of RET protooncogene mutations owing to their nearly complete penetrance for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). However, this guideline is challenged by mutations exhibiting variable penetrance of C-cell pathology. A 38-year-old woman presented with pathologic basal and pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin levels. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous RET protooncogene germline mutation in codon 791 (exon 13) (TAT(Tyr)-->TTT(Phe)), followed by thyroidectomy and systematic central lymph node dissection. histology showed C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) only. Three additional carriers were identified among family members. The 71-year-old father refused surgery despite pathologic calcitonin levels. The index patient's 37-year-old sister had normal basal and stimulated calcitonin levels, and her 6-year-old son had a 10-fold rise of calcitonin after pentagastrin stimulation. Both patients underwent the same operation as the index patient. The sister had 25 hyperplastic C-cells, but the her son had extensive CCH without MTC. The eldest uncle of the index patient had died of metastatic MTC at the age of 52 with unknown carrier status. Despite variable penetrance, each carrier of a RET protooncogene germline mutation should undergo thyroidectomy, even if basal and stimulated calcitonin levels are normal because at present no test can exclude or predict the age of development of MTC. Moreover, pathologic calcitonin levels cannot differentiate between CCH and MTC. Central lymph node dissection is recommended, as lymph node metastases occur early, significantly worsening the prognosis. ( info)

14/301. Cardiac failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in a patient with endocrine adenomatosis.

    In this case report, we present the successful therapy of severe cardiac failure in pituitary adrenal insufficiency. A previously healthy 56-year-old-man in pituitary coma due to an atypical variant of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (pituitary adenoma and pheochromocytoma) suffered from cardiac failure resistant to catecholamine and standard hydrocortisone therapy. After two bolus injections of dexamethasone (2 x 24 mg) mean arterial pressure and cardiac function dramatically improved, probably due to restoration of permissive effects on catecholamine action and reversal of pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiac failure. We conclude that in patients with severe cardiovascular failure in pituitary coma the administration of potent glucocorticoids may be more effective in reversing cardiovascular failure than standard dosages of hydrocortisone. ( info)

15/301. Primary uterine tumors and multiple endocrine adenomatosis, type I.

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis, Type I was initially diagnosed in a 35-year-old woman with primary chief cell hyperplasia of the parathyroids. Approximately 5 years later, vaginal bleeding developed and a well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma was recognized. An adenomatoid tumor of the uterus was discovered in addition to a nonfunctional islet cell tumor of the pancreas. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis is reviewed in relation to possible gynecologic neoplasms. ( info)

16/301. Coexistence of thyrotropin-producing pituitary adenoma with papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid--a case report and surgical strategy.

    We report a very rare case of thyrotropin (thyroxin stimulating hormone, TSH)-producing pituitary adenoma coexisting with a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. A 45-year-old woman presented with hyperhidrosis and a nodule in the left thyroid that was first noticed one year earlier. An endocrinological examination showed elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine (T3) and free throxin (T4) without inhibition of TSH, suggesting the presence of syndromes of inappropriate secretion of TSH. A specimen obtained by needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule revealed the presence of papillary adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient was diagnosed as having a TSH-producing pituitary adenoma coexisting with a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with resection of the neighboring lymph nodes. Two weeks after this surgery, the pituitary adenoma was totally removed via a pterional approach. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the surgical specimens confirmed the lesion as a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and a TSH-producing pituitary adenoma. serum TSH levels decreased to undetectable levels immediately after the surgery for the pituitary adenoma. Prolonged stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH may be involved in the growth of thyroid carcinoma. In cases with a TSH-producing pituitary adenoma, the possible coexistence of thyroid carcinoma should be carefully ruled out. In such cases, a total thyroidectomy followed by TSH level normalization should be performed. Incomplete removal of the thyroid might enable the carcinoma to re-grow if TSH level can not be normalized after the pituitary adenomectomy. ( info)

17/301. Multiple endocrine adenomas in a patient with the Maffucci syndrome.

    A patient with multiple cutaneous hemangiomas and skeletal dyschondroplasia (the Maffucci syndrome) was found to have a pituitary chromophobe adenoma, a parathyroid adenoma and two other neoplasms. The presence of two endocrine tumors suggested the syndrome of multiple endocrine adenomatosis, and raised the issue of an etiologic relationship between this disease and the Maffucci syndrome. Dyschondroplasia, however, has no known influence on the secretion of parathyroid hormone or any of the pituitary hormones. The Maffucci syndrome is associated with a high incidence of malignancy, but it involves primarily mesodermal derivatives whereas multiple endocrine adenomatosis affects tissues of ectodermal origin. The association of the two in our patient is probably fortuitous. ( info)

18/301. Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing's syndrome, thyroid papillary carcinoma and hypergastrinemia in a middle-aged woman.

    We report a rare case of virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome, thyroid papillary carcinoma and hypergastrinemia. A 45-year-old woman had a history of amenorrhea for 10 years, hypertension for 8 years, and diabetes mellitus for 3 years. physical examination showed a masculinized woman with severe hirsutism, male-like baldness, deep voice, acne in the precordia, and clitorism. plasma testosterone, DHEA-S and urinary 17-KS were high, and plasma cortisol level was it at the upper limit of the normal range, but it did not show a diurnal rhythm nor was suppressed by 2 and 8 mg of dexamethasone. Abdominal CT scan showed a left adrenal tumor (4.5 cm in size). Adrenal scintigram revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side, and plasma cortisol concentration was high in a blood sample from the left adrenal vein. Left adrenalectomy was performed. Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma, consisting of tumor cells with eosinophilic compact cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining for steroidogenic enzymes showed reactivity for P450sec, 3 beta-HSD, P450c17, P450c21 and P450c11. plasma testosterone and cortisol levels decreased to the normal range postoperatively. The patient was also found to have a papillary thyroid carcinoma and hypergastrinemia. Our patient is a rare case of virilizing adrenocortical adenoma associated with Cushing's syndrome, thyroid papillary carcinoma, and hypergastrinemia. ( info)

19/301. Intractable pruritus associated with insulinoma in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia: a novel paraneoplastic phenomenon.

    insulinoma is a rare tumour, the main symptoms of which are related to hypoglycaemia. Generalized pruritus has been described in association with the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN II or Sipple's syndrome) as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Further, pruritus is known to be part of the paraneoplastic syndrome in other solid tumours. This case describes a patient presenting with symptoms of Whipple's triad (hypoglycaemic symptoms during fasting, low fasting blood sugar levels and symptoms relieved by intravenous dextrose). Magnetic resonance scanning and selective mesenteric angiography demonstrated a probable pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. Pituitary fossa imaging and endocrine profile excluded the MEN I syndrome. Symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the tumour. histology confirmed a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. The association between pruritus and insulinoma appears to be a novel paraneoplastic phenomenon. ( info)

20/301. hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin in 10 patients.

    PURPOSE: The syndrome of inappropriate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion, characterized by elevated serum free thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in association with measurable serum TSH concentrations, remains an uncommon cause of hyperthyroidism that is being recognized with increasing frequency. The hyperthyroidism may be due to either neoplastic pituitary TSH secretion or selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. In an effort to better understand this rare cause of hyperthyroidism, we undertook a retrospective analysis of our institution's experience with this condition. patients: We reviewed our cumulative experience (10 patients) with hyperthyroidism due to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH. RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas and four were found to have selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. One patient with tumor had a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. In all patients with tumor, hyperthyroidism was successfully treated with transsphenoidal adenomectomy with or without pituitary radiotherapy. All four patients with pituitary resistance had thyroid ablation or resection prior to their correct diagnosis. Therefore, therapy for this group of patients involved thyroid hormone replacement and efforts to suppress TSH hypersecretion. All 10 patients have done well clinically, with follow-up ranging from 2 weeks to 13 years. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate treatment exists for the two primary causes of TSH hypersecretion. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are treated with surgery and, if necessary, adjuvant pituitary radiotherapy. The results are generally good if the tumor is diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Primary therapy for hyperthyroidism due to selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone is aimed at suppression of pituitary TSH hypersecretion. The evaluation of any patient with hyperthyroidism must be thorough and, in some cases, should include measurement of TSH to determine the presence of inappropriate secretion. Eliminating this diagnosis will help avoid improper and potentially harmful treatment of hyperthyroid patients. ( info)
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