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21/301. Ovarian strumal carcinoid in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA.

    Strumal carcinoid is an unusual form of monodermal ovarian teratoma with thyroid-like follicles admixed with typical carcinoid tumor patterns. We encountered a case of this neoplasm in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IIA (Sipple's syndrome), including a medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed 24 years previously. During evaluation of bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas, a unilateral left ovarian strumal carcinoid was discovered. Subsequently, the patient had a parathyroid adenoma excised. The ovarian tumor was immunohistochemically reactive for neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and serotonin, but did not stain for calcitonin. The follicular structures stained for thyroglobulin. This unusual case shows that ovarian strumal carcinoid, like carcinoid tumors at other sites, may arise in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia. ( info)

22/301. Benefit of resection of metastatic gastrinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    Although gastrinoma resection is generally advocated for patients with the sporadic form of nonmetastatic zollinger-ellison syndrome, there is controversy regarding the surgical management of the gastrinoma among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I). Using strict criteria, to date no biochemical cures of the zollinger-ellison syndrome lasting greater than 5 months have been achieved by gastrinoma resection among patients with MEN-I. Whereas resections of hepatic metastases have been performed in patients with sporadic gastrinoma, none have been reported among patients with MEN-I. The current report describes a patient with MEN-I, closely followed up for 30 years, in whom enlargement of pancreatic gastrinoma and development of hepatic gastrinoma was observed to occur over 3 years. After preoperative localization, an 80% pancreatectomy and a left lateral segmentectomy of the liver were performed. Sixteen months after the operation, secretin and calcium provocative testing showed that the patient's fasting gastrin and stimulated plasma gastrin concentrations were normal; also, results of computerized tomographic angiography, selective abdominal angiography, and hepatic venous sampling for gastrin after intra-arterial secretin injection were negative for gastrinoma. By achieving a 16-month cure of gastrinoma, this case shows that an aggressive surgical approach can benefit certain patients with gastrinoma who have MEN-I even in the presence of hepatic metastases. ( info)

23/301. cytogenetics of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. I. Two different, unique clonal chromosome changes in a medullary thyroid carcinoma and in a C-cell thyroid hyperplasia.

    In short-term cultures of tumor tissue from a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we found a large clone of cells with a balanced translocation t(9;12)(p24;q22). A large clone with a balanced translocation t(10;16)(p11;q24) was also found in cultures from a C-cell thyroid hyperplasia. No clearcut evidence for chromosome instability was observed in the lymphocytes of the two patients. The mother of the first patient died of MTC; two relatives of the second patient had MTC and one of them had pheochromocytoma. These findings classify the two subjects as MEN 2A patients with different phenotypic expression but with the same type of chromosomal abnormality. ( info)

24/301. Difficulties in localization and treatment of insulinomas in type 1 multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA).

    A 15 year old girl with a family history of type 1 multiple endocrine adenomatosis presented with reversible neurological disturbances, hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Initial radiology was normal, but portal venous sampling suggested an insulinoma in the tail of the pancreas which was removed with conservation of the spleen. Hypoglycaemia persisted despite high doses of diazoxide and intravenous dextrose. A second laparotomy revealed a pancreatic endocrine tumour and sub-total pancreatectomy was performed. histology revealed islet cell microadenomatosis. Hypoglycaemia persisted despite treatment with somatostatin analogues and 40% intravenous dextrose was required to maintain normoglycaemia. A possible lesion near the splenic hilum on computed tomographic scan was reported as a splenunculus although further peripheral, hepatic and portal venous sampling suggested hepatic or systemic lesions. A positron emission scan and selective visceral angiography suggested a lesion in the left upper quadrant. Acute lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure supervened. Post mortem revealed the putative 'splenunculus' to be a residual insulinoma, whilst the splenic vein was thrombosed, accounting in part for discrepant venous sampling data. Hyperinsulinaemia in type 1 multiple endocrine adenomatosis may require more aggressive surgical and hormonal intervention than when dealing with solitary insulinomas. Insulinomas may mimic developmental abnormalities on computed tomographic scanning. ( info)

25/301. calcitonin immunoreactivity and hypercalcitoninemia in two patients with sporadic, nonfamilial, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    BACKGROUND. Hypercalcitoninemia in gastroenteropancreatic tumors associated with calcitonin immunoreactivity is rare. methods. We report here two patients in whom pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors both contained and secreted immunoreactive calcitonin. Both patients experienced elevated basal calcitonin immunoreactivity. RESULTS. The peak responses of immunoreactive calcitonin occurred 5 minutes after pentagastrin administration in these two patients and were 30% and 180% above basal concentrations corresponding to peak increments of 0.39 and 8.78 ng/ml, respectively. The immunoreactive calcitonin response to pentagastrin in these two patients was not significantly different from that seen among five patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION. It does not appear that immunoreactive calcitonin responses to pentagastrin stimulation will discriminate between patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and those with nonfamilial, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that express calcitonin immunoreactivity. In patients with secretory diarrhea and/or flushing, an elevated level of immunoreactive calcitonin, in the absence of a thyroid mass in the neck, may herald the presence of a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. ( info)

26/301. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome--type 2b. Case report and review.

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are an association of tumours of 2 or more endocrine glands. multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN 2b) patients develop medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytomas as well as unique physical characteristics. Most commonly, MEN2b is inherited with an autosomal dominant pattern although sporadic cases are not uncommon. If untreated the disease may be lethal. The facial, oral and ocular characteristics are reliable markers of the disease. These patients give a history most commonly of slipped capital femoral epiphysis, hypertension and life-long diarrhoea and/or constipation. MEN2b is most commonly characterised by nodules on the anterior aspect of the tongue, thickened lips with nodules, thickened upper eyelids, broadened nasal bridge, thickened corneal nerves and dilated, symmetrical, pedunculated nodules on the cheek mucosa. The patient described has most of these characteristics. Radiographic features of the jaws which have not been previously described are reported. These include a markedly enlarged and bifurcated inferior alveolar canal and shortened roots of the lower incisor teeth. Due to the lethality of the disease, patients who present with the above physical characteristics must be further investigated to exclude MEN2b. ( info)

27/301. A kindred of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b.

    We describe familial cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B: A 48-year-old man is the proband. He had pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), parathyroid hyperplasia, mucosal neuromas, eversion of eyelids and Marfanoid appearance, and then underwent adrenalectomy and total thyroidectomy. family screening revealed that his two daughters (10 and 8 years old) had mucosal neuromas and increased serum calcitonin (CT). Both of them had MTCs but no pheochromocytoma, and their MTCs were surgically removed. The father and his children have been in favorable condition since the operations. Southern blot analysis with 33 polymorphic dna probes was done in MTCs obtained from two daughters. An RBP3 (10q11.2) locus linked to a predisposing gene on chromosome 10 was uninformative in either patient because of constitutional homozygosity. Loss of heterozygosity at the MYCL1 locus on chromosome 1p32 was observed in MTC from the younger sister, but no loss of heterozygosity was recognized in other loci examined. Deletion of the 1p32 locus may play a role in the development of MEN 2B. ( info)

28/301. Neuroendocrine carcinoma in a patient with hairy cell leukemia: a case report.

    Second malignancies are common in hairy cell leukemia. We report a case of a neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in a patient who had been diagnosed with hairy cell leukemia 6 years earlier. This case is the first report of these two tumors' occurring together. The pathogenetic basis for the presence of these two uncommon tumors in our patient is discussed. ( info)

29/301. Concurrent adrenal pheochromocytoma and papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid in a 20-year-old man.

    A 20-year-old man was admitted to Kyushu University Hospital with complaints of severe headache and episodic hypertension (200/100 mmHg). Ultrasonograms and computed tomographs revealed tumors in the left adrenal region and in the right lower lobe of the thyroid gland. Total thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed. The excised thyroid tumor and adrenal tumor were pathologically diagnosed as papillary adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma, respectively. A chromosome analysis revealed no karyotypic abnormality. Whereas the world literature records such occurrences in women, this is the first report of a simultaneous occurrence of pheochromocytoma and papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid in a young man. ( info)

30/301. Thymic carcinoid in association with MEN syndromes.

    Although carcinoid tumors in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MEN) has been well described, thymic carcinoid in association with MEN is extremely rare (only 23 cases in the world literature). A patient with thymic carcinoid and MEN-I was treated with surgical resection and postoperative radiation therapy, which was later followed by subtotal parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism. Four years later, a symptomatic recurrence of his thymic carcinoid was resected from below his right clavicle. Six years after his original operation, the patient came to the hospital with pancreatitis, and a 5 cm, distal, pancreatic metastasis was resected. He now has symptomatic paraspinal and pleural metastases and is receiving somatostatin. review of the world's literature shows that the majority of patients with thymic carcinoid and MEN-I are men with an average age of 37 years. Their clinical course is indolent, and surgery represents the only means of cure. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy confer no survival advantage. The surgical decision making involved in treating a patient with thymic carcinoid and hyperparathyroidism associated with MEN is also discussed. ( info)
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