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1/151. Multiple endocrine neoplastic-associated thymic carcinoid tumour in close relatives: octreotide scan as a new diagnostic and follow-up modality. Two case reports.

    Thymic carcinoid tumours constitute less than 1% of all carcinoids, and differ markedly from true thymomas in natural history, morphology, prognosis and therapeutic options. New clinical and diagnostic modalities are described in two brothers with thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. octreotide scintigraphy proved useful for diagnosis and follow-up, and somatostatin receptor positivity may provide new prospects for treatment of non-resectable or recurrent tumour. ( info)

2/151. A case of zollinger-ellison syndrome produced by gastrinoma in the duodenum accompanied with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    A case of zollinger-ellison syndrome produced by gastrinoma in the duodenum accompanied by multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN-1) is reported. A 46 year-old female underwent distal gastrectomy due to gastric ulcer 5 years ago. As ulceration of the residual stomach recurred, further examination was performed. hyperprolactinemia, hypergastrinemia, primary hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic tumor, and duodenal carcinoid were evident, and the diagnoses of zollinger-ellison syndrome and MEN-1 were established. The origin of the gastrin secretion was suspected to be from the pancreatic tumor, so sampling of the portal blood was performed. As lesion on the gastrinoma in the pancreas could not be identified, total parathyroidectomy was performed for primary hyperparathyroidism. The level of the gastrin secretion, however, remained high. Partial resection of the duodenum for the duodenal carcinoid and a distal pancreatectomy were carried out concurrently. Immunohistochemical study of the anti-gastrin antibody revealed duodenal tumor cells. Initially, the gastrinoma was thought to be in the pancreas, however, the lesion accompanied with MEN-1 and the zollinger-ellison syndrome had occurred in the duodenum. ( info)

3/151. A new mutation of the MEN1 gene in an italian kindred with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a new mutation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in an Italian kindred. DESIGN: The study included the female proband, aged 50 years, affected by primary hyperparathyroidism, insulinoma and prolactinoma, and ten relatives. blood samples were obtained for biochemical and genetic analyses. Clinical screening tests included serum glucose, ionized calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, GH, insulin and prolactin. The coding sequence, including nine coding exons and 16 splice sites, was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. RESULTS: Two additional cases of primary hyperparathyroidism were identified among the paternal family members. The sequence analysis showed a heterozygous T to C transition at codon 444 in exon 9, resulting in a leucine to proline substitution (L444P) in the patient and in the two paternal family members with primary hyperparathyroidism. The L444P amino acid change was absent in 50 normal subjects. The mutation determined the loss of a BlnI restriction site of the wild-type sequence and the creation of a new restriction EcoRII site. The patient, but not her paternal affected relatives, also had a common heterozygous polymorphism (D418D) in exon 9. CONCLUSIONS: A new MEN1 mutation (L444P) in exon 9 has been identified; this substitution caused the loss of a BlnI restriction site and the creation of a new EcoRII site. ( info)

4/151. multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 concomitant with prader-willi syndrome: case report and genetic diagnosis.

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) accompanied with prader-willi syndrome (PWS) was reported. diagnosis of both diseases have been genetically confirmed. Delay in the diagnosis and management for PWS made surgery for endocrine tumors difficult. This is the first report on the concomitance of MEN 1 with PWS. ( info)

5/151. Secondary infertility as early symptom in a man with multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1.

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic endocrine tumours and pituitary adenomas. Here, we report a patient with a history of insulinoma who developed secondary infertility as a further symptom of the disease. When he was first examined at the age of 36 years, he complained of weakness, reduced libido and impotence. Laboratory evaluation revealed non-obstructive azoospermia and hyperprolactinaemia. In contrast to sexual activity and serum prolactin, semen quality did not significantly respond to bromocriptine therapy. During follow-up, a growing pituitary adenoma caused acromegaly with elevated serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. After microsurgery of the tumour at the age of 44 years, sperm concentration persistently increased up to 5.6 x 10(6)/ml. In accordance with the clinical diagnosis of MEN1, dna sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 2 of the menin gene which results in a truncated, inactive protein product. In conclusion, MEN1 with pituitary lesions may cause severe hypogonadism and infertility. Both hyperprolactinaemia and overproduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 seem to be involved in testicular dysfunction in the present case. The possible role of menin in the testis, however, remains to be elucidated. ( info)

6/151. Cytogenetic and CGH studies of four neuroendocrine tumors and tumor-derived cell lines of a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    A malignant insulinoma (LOHG-I), a carcinoid of the lung (LOHG-L), a parathyroid adenoma (LOHG-NSA), and a fibroma (LOHG-F) were obtained from a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Long-term cultures were established. Essential neurobiological properties of the cell lines were proven immunocytochemically and by electron microscopy. Molecular analysis of the germline dna showed a 4 bp deletion in exon 3 of the MEN1 gene. Cytogenetic and CGH analyses of the tumors/tumor cell lines revealed diploidy and balanced and unbalanced structural aberrations different for each tumor. chromosomes 6q21, 11q and 17q were most frequently involved in clonal structural aberrations. ( info)

7/151. A family of MEN1 with a novel germline missense mutation and benign polymorphisms.

    The gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has recently been cloned, and its germline mutations were identified in patients with this syndrome. The majority of the mutations, frameshift or nonsense mutations, are expected to result in a loss of function of the gene product menin. Since the consequence of less common missense or in-frame deletion mutations is not clear, careful judgment is necessary regarding the role(s) of such mutations in MEN1 disease. Here we describe a large multigenerational MEN1 family with a novel germline missense mutation and three benign polymorphisms. The proband was a man with hyperparathyroidism and thymic carcinoid. We performed biochemical studies and dna analyses of the MEN1 gene simultaneously and independently as family screening studies. Seven patients including the proband were identified, and all of them carried a heterozygous germline missense mutation E45G, but 5 members with normal biochemical results did not. This mutation was not observed in 50 normal volunteers. This novel missense mutation is therefore almost conclusively responsible for the disease. Although all of the mutant gene carriers in the present study already had clinical diseases, an MEN1 gene analysis in younger individuals at risk would be very useful in identifying carriers before the onset of the symptoms. ( info)

8/151. Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism caused by single adenoma: a distinct entity different from multiple endocrine neoplasia.

    Familial hyperparathyroidism (FHPT) is a hereditary disease where hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. FHPT consists of a variety of diseases such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (MEN 1) and type2 (MEN 2), familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHPT) with single adenoma and with multiple adenomas (or hyperplasia), and FHPT with jaw-tumor (FHPT-JT). Isolation of the genes responsible for MEN1, and 2, i.e. MEN1 and RET, respectively, makes it possible to examine the relations among disorders constituting FHPT. We studied germ-line mutations in these 2 genes in a family of FHPT with single parathyroid adenoma. The disorder in this family was proved to be an entity different from MEN1 because no germ-line mutations in MEN1 gene were found in the affected members. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at MEN1 gene and PYGM were not found in the abnormal parathyroid in this family, supporting the above conclusion. No mutations in exons 10, and 11 of RET proto-oncogene was found in germ-line dna of the affected member of the family, suggesting no relation to MEN2A. Linkage study excluded the possibility of FHPT-JT syndrome. PRAD1 was not overexpressed in the parathyroid tumors in this family. The relation of this disorder to FIHPT with multiple enlarged parathyroid glands remains to be clarified. A search for the gene(s) predisposing to FIHPT is needed. ( info)

9/151. Detection of a novel nonsense mutation of the MEN1 gene in a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patient and its screening in the family members.

    We identified a novel nonsense mutation(R29X) of the MEN1 gene in a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patient. Molecular analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in the family members by a restriction digestion method. The same mutation pattern was seen in both the proband's younger brother and cousin diagnosed as MEN1, and was also observed in the son of the cousin who showed signs of normal levels of serum PTH associated with mild hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These findings suggest that mutation analysis of the MEN1 gene is very useful in identifying the subclinical state of MEN1 as well as clinical MEN1. ( info)

10/151. A novel splicing mutation (894-9 G --> A) of the MEN1 gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Germline MEN1 gene mutations are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome. We identified a MEN1 germline mutation 894-9 G --> A in three MEN1 patients from two unrelated families. This mutation was not present in any of the 100 blood samples from normal volunteers. The wild type MEN1 sequence was lost in the patient's pancreatic tumor. Abnormal mRNA was identified in the tumor, which retained an intronic sequence indicating aberrant mRNA splicing at a newly created splicing acceptor site. These findings indicate that this nucleotide substitution is, though previously reported to be a polymorphism, a causative splicing mutation. ( info)
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