Cases reported "Multiple Myeloma"

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1/9. Hematopoietic donor chimerism and graft-versus-myeloma effect in relapse of multiple myeloma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A large group of patients relapsing after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have obtained remission after infusion of leukocytes from their original donor, suggesting a graft-versus-myeloma effect. However, side effects such as graft-versus-host disease and myelosuppression are severe, and sometimes fatal, complications of this therapeutic approach. Previously we demonstrated that patients with leukemia who lack donor hematopoiesis in relapse after BMT experience severe and lasting aplasia after infusion of donor leukocytes. In two patients - one with extramedullary and one with marrow relapse after a sex-mismatched transplantation - we analyzed hematopoietic chimerism by cell sorting and bone marrow cultures. CD34-positive cells, CD4-CD8-positive cells, committed progenitors, and LTC-IC were of donor origin, as demonstrated by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, in relapse complete donor T-cell chimerism was seen. In contrast, plasma cells were of recipient origin in the patient who had a relapse in the bone marrow. Both patients were treated with infusions of donor leukocytes from their original donor. Neither patient suffered myelosuppression, and one achieved a stable complete remission.
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2/9. Combined histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-matched donor bone marrow and renal transplantation for multiple myeloma with end stage renal disease: the induction of allograft tolerance through mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism.

    BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical evidence has demonstrated that the establishment of allogeneic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation may provide donor-specific tolerance for solid organ allografts. methods: Based on the preliminary results of a clinical trial using nonmyeloablative preparative therapy for the induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism, we treated a 55-year-old woman with end stage renal disease secondary to multiple myeloma with a combined histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow and renal transplant after conditioning with cyclophosphamide, antithymocyte globulin, and thymic irradiation. RESULTS: The posttransplant course was notable for early normalization of renal function, the absence of acute graft-versus-host disease, and the establishment of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism. cyclosporine, which was the only posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy, was tapered and discontinued on day 73 posttransplant. No rejection episodes occurred, and renal function remains normal on day 170 posttransplant (14 weeks after discontinuing cyclosporine). Although there is presently no evidence of donor hematopoiesis, there is evidence of an ongoing antitumor response with a recent staging evaluation showing no measurable urine kappa light chains. The patient remains clinically well and is off all immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the deliberate induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism after a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen to treat a hematological malignancy and to provide allotolerance for a solid organ transplant.
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3/9. Infusion of lymphocytes obtained from a donor immunised with the paraprotein idiotype as a treatment in a relapsed myeloma.

    A 48-year-old patient with IgA k multiple myeloma received a BMT from his HLA-matched sibling. After transplantation, the disease relapsed. melphalan therapy followed by reinfusion of haemopoietic blood stem cells collected from the patient led to the improvement of the clinical status, although mixed chimerism and an elevated serum IgA persisted. Successful donor immunisation against an immunogenic preparation of the recipient monoclonal protein was performed before the infusion of donor T lymphocytes (DLI) into the patient. Ten weeks after the lymphocyte infusions, no monoclonal band was evidenced and donor complete chimerism was detected. The patient did not develop GVHD. Once complete remission was achieved, the idiotype vaccine was administered to the patient. Nineteen months after DLI, the patient remains in remission. bone marrow transplantation (2000).
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4/9. Non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation ('microallograft') for refractory myeloma after two preceding autografts: feasibility and efficacy in a patient with active aspergillosis.

    A 59-year-old man with a 4-year history of light chain myeloma relapsing after two preceding autografts and salvage therapy with thalidomide underwent a peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant from his HLA-identical sister after conditioning with 100 mg/m2 melphalan. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis comprised cyclosporine. Despite pulmonary infiltrates and sinusitis at the time of the allograft, it was decided to proceed with the transplant because the myeloma was refractory and rapidly progressive. sputum cultures obtained 2 days before the allograft grew aspergillus fumigatus 2 days post transplant. A fumigatus grew repeatedly on specimens obtained post transplant. Prompt hematologic recovery was seen with full donor-type chimerism. The fungal infection subsided gradually on a combination of amphotericin b lipid complex and itraconazole. A second aliquot of donor PBSC was infused electively on day 42 to induce graft-versus-myeloma. Complete remission of the myeloma was achieved by 75 days post transplant. No acute GVHD was seen. No chronic GVHD was seen at 16 weeks when he received the third PBSC infusion. He is currently alive and well in remission 9 months post transplant. This case demonstrates the safety and potential usefulness of allogeneic PBSC transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with markedly compromised performance status.
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5/9. Failure of sustained engraftment after non-myeloablative conditioning with low-dose TBI and T cell-reduced allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation.

    We investigated whether a T cell-reduced allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) with minimal conditioning and subsequent donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) could reduce the incidence and severity of GVHD while retaining stable engraftment. Five patients with hematological malignancies (three MM, one CLL, one chediak-higashi syndrome) were conditioned with TBI (200 cGy). One patient additionally received fludarabine (120 mg/m(2)). CsA and mofetyl-mycophenolate (MMF) were administered to prevent GVHD. All patients were grafted with >3 x 10(6)/kg highly purified CD34( ) cells together with 2 x 10(6)/kg CD3( ) cells (three patients) or 1 x 10(5)/kg CD3( ) cells (two patients). Quick hematopoietic recovery and initial mixed donor chimerism was observed. Treatment-related toxicity was minimal in all but one patient who died of treatment-refractory GVHD on day 112. The four other patients only achieved partial donor T cell chimerism. BM and PBMC donor chimerism was lost between day 40 and 209 despite DLI. Three patients are alive with disease and one is in CR. We conclude that T cell-reduced SCT using 200 cGy as the conditioning regimen does not result in stable hematopoietic engraftment. Predominant donor T cell chimerism is not a prerequisite for initial allogeneic hematopoietic proliferation. However for sustained long-term engraftment it is of major importance.
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6/9. Induction of kidney allograft tolerance after transient lymphohematopoietic chimerism in patients with multiple myeloma and end-stage renal disease.

    BACKGROUND: Two patients with end-stage renal disease secondary to multiple myelomas were treated with combined kidney and bone marrow transplantation in an effort to achieve donor-specific allotolerance through the induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism. methods: Two female patients (55 and 50 years of age) with end-stage renal disease secondary to kappa light-chain multiple myelomas received a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen that consisted of 60 mg/kg cyclophosphamide intravenously (IV) on days -5 and -4; 15 mg/kg equine anti-thymocyte globulin (ATGAM) IV on days -1, 1, and 3; and thymic irradiation (700 cGy) on day -1. On day 0, the recipients underwent kidney transplantation, followed by IV infusion of donor bone marrow (2.7x10(8) and 3.8x10(8) /kg nucleated cells, respectively) obtained from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling. cyclosporine A was administered IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg on day -1, then continued orally at 8 to 12 mg/kg per day until days 73 and 77, respectively, after which no further immunosuppression was given. Donor leukocyte infusions (1x10(7) /kg CD3 T cells) were administered in an attempt to enhance the graft-versus-myeloma effect (days 66 and 112 in the first patient and day 78 in the second patient). Hematopoietic chimerism was monitored weekly by microsatellite assays. RESULTS: Multilineage lymphohematopoietic chimerism (5%-80% donor CD3 or CD3- cells, or both) was first detected during the second posttransplant week and was maintained for approximately 12 weeks, after which there was a gradual decline to undetectable levels (<1% donor cells) after day 105 in the first patient and after day 123 in the second patient. In both recipients, the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels returned to normal within 3 days. No rejection episodes have occurred. Quantification of urinary kappa light chains revealed a decline from 28 mg/dL to undetectable levels (<2.5 mg/dL) within 29 days in the first case and from 99.8 mg/dL to <10 mg/dL within 50 days in the second case. Both patients continue with normal kidney function and sustained anti-tumor responses, while receiving no immunosuppression for nearly 4 years and 2 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This nonmyeloablative regimen followed by combined HLA-matched donor bone marrow and renal allotransplantation is the first example of an intentional and clinically applicable approach to inducing renal allograft tolerance and achieving potent and sustained antitumor effects in patients with multiple myeloma.
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7/9. Early recurrence of rheumatoid arthritis after nonmyeloablative allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation with reduced conditioning has been proposed as a new, potentially curative treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a 60-year-old woman with RA and coexisting multiple myeloma who was treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous blood stem cell transplantation (BSCT) followed by a nonmyeloablative allogeneic BSCT from her healthy dizygotic twin brother. She achieved a complete remission of her RA after autologous BSCT, but relapsed early despite complete donor chimerism following successful allogeneic transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. This case illustrates that allogeneic BSCT following nonmyeloablative conditioning may be an uncertain option for curing patients with RA.
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8/9. Unrelated cord blood transplantation with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen following autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    Two patients, 51- and 45-year-old men with stage III immunoglobulin g multiple myeloma, achieved partial and complete remissions, respectively, after conventional chemotherapy. They both received high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Eighty-four and 78 days after ASCT, the patients underwent unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) following treatment with total-body irradiation (2 Gy), fludarabine (90 mg/m2), and melphalan (140 mg/m2). Neutrophil engraftment was attained on day 27 in patient 1 and day 15 in patient 2. Full donor chimerism of the marrow cells was confirmed. Regimen-related toxicity in both patients remained within grade I. Grades I and II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in patients I and 2, respectively, but improved without steroid therapy. Both patients developed limited chronic GVHD of the skin but needed no treatment. The serum paraprotein level in patient 1 decreased further after ASCT and CBT but remained at minimally detectable levels. The serum and urine paraprotein levels in patient 2 remained below detectable limits. These results suggested that CBT with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen after high-dose chemotherapy with ASCT is a new promising approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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9/9. Sustained molecular remission by non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    multiple myeloma (MM) is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. To achieve a sustained complete remission, we performed planned non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (NST) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in a patient with stage III MM. Autologous HSCT was performed using high-dose melphalan after conventional chemotherapy, followed by NST from an HLA-identical sibling using low-dose total body irradiation (200 cGy) for conditioning. cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil were used for graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Acute GVHD was transiently seen in the skin and intestine, while, in addition, mild chronic GVHD was seen in the oral mucosa and skin. Complete donor chimerism was achieved and the disappearance of tumor-derived monoclonal B cells was confirmed based on an analysis of immunoglobulin light chain messenger signals on day 156 when chronic GVHD occurred. The clinical course in this case strongly suggested the existence of a graft-vs-myeloma effect.
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