Cases reported "Multiple Myeloma"

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1/1940. Primary myeloid leukemia presenting concomitantly with primary multiple myeloma: two cases and an update of the literature.

    We report one case of primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and one case of refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) each presenting concomitantly with multiple myeloma, an unusual finding. The twin diagnoses in each patient were confirmed by cytochemical and immunohistochemical studies, and in one of our cases, by ultrastructural, flow cytometric, and molecular studies. The last three methods have not been previously used to document this phenomenon. ( info)

2/1940. lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation.

    lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process. ( info)

3/1940. IgE multiple myeloma.

    IgE multiple myeloma is a rare disease characterized by a high frequency of Bence-Jones proteinuria and plasma cell leukaemia when compared to other isotypes of monoclonal proteins. Only 35 cases have been reported. We describe a 70-year-old woman with a stage III IgE kappa multiple myeloma presenting with a sacral plasmacytoma. Immunological and biochemical studies showed IgE kappa producing tumoral plasma cells. serum total IgE was high without clinical symptoms suggesting an hyperIgE syndrome or mast cell activation. The patient underwent surgical removal of the sacral tumor and monthly melphalan-prednisone treatment together with intravenous pamidronate infusions. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dorsolumbar spine revealed an epidural process leading to T6-T9 radiotherapy. Bone densitometry showed a decreased bone mineral content supporting the management of myeloma-related osteoporosis with bisphosphonate infusions. A good partial response with plateau-phase and increase of bone mineral content was achieved after 1 year of treatment and still persists after a 28 months follow-up. ( info)

4/1940. T-cell-epitope mapping of the idiotypic monoclonal IgG heavy and light chains in multiple myeloma.

    The idiotypic structures of the myeloma protein might be regarded as tumor-specific antigens. The present study was designed to map T-cell epitopes of the idiotypic myeloma protein to prove the existence of naturally occurring major-histocompatibility-complex-dependent idiotype (peptide)-specific T cells in multiple myeloma. The fine specificity of idiotype-reactive, interferon-gamma-producing blood T cells of a patient with multiple myeloma stage I was characterized by identification of idiotype (heavy and light chains)-derived MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes. T cells specifically reacting with peptides corresponding to each of the 3 complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the heavy-chain variable part (V(H)) of the autologous idiotype were found. In contrast, none of the peptides corresponding to the 3 CDRs of the light chain (V(L)) induced a specific T-cell response. The idiotype amino-acid sequence corresponding to the junction of the V(H), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments of the VH appeared to be an important target for T cells, since the sequence expressed MHC-class-I- as well as MHC-class-II-restricted epitopes. The study provides further support for the existence of MHC-restricted idiotype-specific T cells, which may target immunogenic CDR peptides in multiple myeloma. Such T cells could be an important part of the specific anti-tumor immune responses induced in idiotype vaccination protocols. ( info)

5/1940. poems syndrome, steroid-dependent diabetes mellitus, erythema elevatum diutinum, and rheumatoid arthritis as extramedullary manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.

    poems syndrome is a rare synopsis of different multisystemic disorders (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammapathy, and skin lesions) associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. We herein report the atypical case of a 44-year-old white man presenting with glomerulopathy, poems syndrome, and erythema elevatum diutinum with a few-year history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as early manifestations of IgAlambda multiple myeloma. The prescription of 1 mg/kg/day prednisone improved the patient's features dramatically. skin lesions improved by the association of glucocorticoids and plasma exchange, recurred when plasmapheresis ceased, and remitted when plasma exchange was reintroduced. NIDDM requiring insulinotherapy recurred when corticoids were discontinued and remitted when prednisone was reintroduced. However, prednisone and plasmapheresis had no effect on polyneuropathy, M-paraprotein, and plasma cell dyscrasia in our patient, who developed indolent multiple myeloma a few years later. We thus concluded that poems syndrome, steroid-dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, RA, and skin vasculitis in our patient were triggered by plasma cell dyscrasia. ( info)

6/1940. Acute renal failure from multiple myeloma precipitated by ACE inhibitors.

    Renal failure in multiple myeloma can be precipitated during hemodynamic perturbances of renal blood flow, as seen secondary to volume depletion, radiocontrast dye, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. We report two cases of acute renal failure that developed suddenly after initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, both with biopsy-proven cast nephropathy. ACE inhibitors may contribute to the intratubular light chain cast formation and acute "myeloma kidney" in susceptible patients. ( info)

7/1940. Late appearance of an IgA (kappa) monoclonal protein in a patient with IgG (kappa) multiple myeloma: sharing of idiotypic specificities between the two serum proteins.

    A patient with an IgG(chi) monoclonal serum protein developed in the course of the disease a second monoclonal spike of the same light chain type and of the IgA class. The latter monoclonal protein progressively increased and eventually exceeded the first IgG(chi) protein. Antigenic analysis of the two myeloma proteins demonstrated that they shared idiotypic determinants. Immunofluorescence studies, carried out with anti gamma and anti alpha reagents tagged with different fluorochromes revealed that the two isotypes were produced by different plasma cells. The data are discussed in the prospect of a possible transitional mechanism from IgG to IgA synthesis within a single B cell clone. ( info)

8/1940. Mandibular mass as the presenting manifestation of IgM myeloma in a 22-year-old man.

    We report here the youngest known IgM myeloma patient to have presented with a mandibular mass. A 22-year-old Chinese man sought medical attention due to a mass over his right mandible that had been growing progressively for 6 months. A solitary osteolytic lesion in the right mandible was identified radiologically. Incisional biopsy revealed the presence of plasma cells of monoclonal origin, as evidenced by the exclusively positive staining of the kappa light chain. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma with mandibular involvement was confirmed by bone marrow examination. Further tests, including immunoglobulin electrophoresis and assay of the serum levels of kappa and lambda light chains, demonstrated that his myeloma was of the IgM, kappa subtype. The patient achieved a nonsustained partial response to six courses of melphalan and prednisolone therapy and palliative radiotherapy. ( info)

9/1940. Recurrent hypoglycaemia in multiple myeloma: a case of munchausen syndrome by proxy in an elderly patient.

    A 73-year-old woman with multiple myeloma experienced four episodes of loss of consciousness, convulsions and profuse sweating whilst she was in the hospital. A thorough investigation in the department of medicine disclosed that with each attack, she had a serum glucose < 1.6 mM L-1, insulin level > 1400 pMol L-1 (N- < 150) and a normal level of serum c-peptide. Since she had no anti-insulin antibodies (which may rarely exist in multiple myeloma), a diagnosis of exogenous injection of insulin was made. A search for a possible perpetrator discovered that the patient had a daughter who was a surgical nurse and who was genuinely concerned whenever she was told that her mother was about to be discharged from the hospital. If she was the perpetrator in the present case, then it is possible that the motive for such an action was to postpone the mother's discharge from hospital. This case is an example of a 'factitious disease by proxy' in an elderly patient. The aim of the present report is to alert the medical personnel to the possibility that Munchausen's syndrome by proxy may also occur in the elderly. ( info)

10/1940. IgA multiple myeloma presenting as an acquired bullous disorder.

    A 63-year-old man presented with an intensely pruritic vesiculo-bullous eruption on the limbs and was subsequently found to have an IgA kappa multiple myeloma. The eruption clinically and histologically was suggestive of linear IgA disease (LAD), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE), with the skin biopsy revealing subepidermal bullae and dermal papillary micro-abscesses. However, direct immunofluorescence showed a unique pattern of diffuse dermal IgA staining. Although chemotherapy produced a dramatic resolution of the lesions, which paralleled the fall in serum IgA paraprotein level, the myeloma later became progressive and the resulting paraprotein increase was accompanied by recurrence of the eruption. We propose that this patient's rash was the presenting manifestation of his multiple myeloma, and was a consequence of transudation of IgA paraprotein into the dermis. ( info)
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