Cases reported "Multiple Organ Failure"

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1/29. Combined anti-fungal therapy and surgical resection as treatment of pulmonary zygomycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a rare but severe complication in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report a 49-year-old patient who developed pneumonitis after BMT, due to a mucorales fungus (class Zygomycetes), absidia corymbifera. Infections due to mucormycosis are likely to become increasingly recognized even though the occurrence after BMT has only been described sporadically. We postulate that the patient was contaminated before BMT despite no intensive drug treatment or other iatrogenic features, related to his poor living conditions and developed the infection during aplasia. He immediately received i.v. liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome) and GM-CSF. Because there was no response, the infected area and necrotic tissue were resected. Despite initial clinical and biological improvement and the absence of Mucor on mycological examination post-surgery, the patient died 3 weeks later from bilateral pulmonary infection and multiorgan failure.
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2/29. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas.
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3/29. colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects.

    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a further case in which two persons confused this highly poisonous plant with wild garlic (allium ursinum), a popular spice in the Central European cuisine. While one person merely complained about a 3-day episode of nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea, the second person died of multi-organ system derangements 48 h after the ingestion of the colchicum leaves. At autopsy hemorrhagic lung oedema, hypocellular bonemarrow, centrilobular fatty necrosis of the liver and necrosis of the proximal convoluted tubuli of the kidneys were observed. A colchicine concentration of 7.5 micrograms/ml was found in the bile whereas no substance was detected in the postmortem blood.
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4/29. Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome presenting as a component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of severe reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS), to discuss their impact, and to present evidence that RHS may be a constitutive part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). DESIGN: Case-report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). patients: Two patients with RHS and MODS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Case #1: A 3 yr-old boy with Mucha-Haberman syndrome (pityriasis lichenoides) was admitted to the PICU for septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, capillary leak, acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, and RHS (pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate). The pancytopenia was severe (white blood cell count, 0.9 x 10(9)/L; hemoglobin, 59 g/L; platelets, 36 x 10(9)/L), required many transfusions, and resolved 2 months later. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 6 wks. length of stay in PICU was 2 months. Case #2: A previously healthy 4 yr-old girl was admitted to the PICU for respiratory failure. She developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiomyopathy with complete atrioventricular block, shock, capillary leak, liver dysfunction, and RHS (pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspirate). The pancytopenia was severe (white blood cell count, 1.92 x 10(9)/L; hemoglobin, 65 g/L; platelets, 58 x 10(9)/L) and necessitated transfusional support. serology for respiratory syncytial virus was positive. RHS duration was 20 days; the patient recovered completely. Length of mechanical ventilation was 16 days and length of stay in PICU was 3 wks. CONCLUSIONS: These cases show that RHS may be a significant cause of pancytopenia in the PICU. It needs to be recognized as a clinical entity because it can be reversible and nonneoplastic. RHS and MODS share some pathophysiologic elements and could be related to each other.
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5/29. Graft failure due to hemophagocytic syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occasionally cause graft failure. We describe a female patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with graft failure due to HPS 12 days after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Autologous PBSCT was carried out during unconfirmed/uncertain complete remission according to the Cotswolds classification after 6 cycles of biweekly (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) therapy and 3 courses of salvage chemotherapy including etoposide. The patient developed a high fever on day 2 post-PBSCT. Her white blood cell count rose to 0.9 x 10(9)/L on day 10 post-PBSCT, but then began to decrease. A bone marrow aspirate on day 12 post-PBSCT revealed an increase in the number of benign histiocytes with hemophagocytosis, and the patient was diagnosed with HPS. Although high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was continued, her white blood cell count further decreased to 0.3 x 10(9)/L, and the patient died of multiple organ failure on day 29 post-PBSCT. A computed tomography scan did not identify recurrent NHL, and necropsy specimens from the bone marrow, liver, and kidney revealed no neoplastic infiltration. Bone marrow necropsy showed marked hypocellularity with active histiocytic hemophagocytosis. HPS may have been induced by infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus rather than by lymphoma-associated HPS.
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6/29. An elderly patient with hemophagocytic syndrome due to severe mycoplasma pneumonia with marked hypercytokinemia.

    We present an extremely rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) induced by fulminant mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) pneumonia in an elderly adult. Erythrocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in a patient with acute respiratory failure, liver dysfunction and renal failure. Mp-associated HPS was diagnosed in this case by clinical and laboratory findings, including a bone marrow aspiration specimen and serum Mp antibody titer. High serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, human interleukin-10 and macrophage-colony stimulating factor were observed. Hypercytokinemia is a useful marker of disease activity and prognosis. Combined treatment with methylprednisolone and erythromycin was successful and led to a favorable outcome. physicians should be aware of HPS as a complication in Mp infection.
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keywords = macrophage, bone
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7/29. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by cytomegalovirus-induced hemophagocytic syndrome and colitis.

    Here, we report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and colitis. A 44-year-old woman with SLE was treated with corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis. Although her lupus nephritis improved, fever, progressive pancytopenia and intestinal bleeding were observed. A bone marrow aspiration showed an increase in mature histiocytes with hemophagocytosis. In addition, a colonoscopy showed hemorrhagic colitis with ulcer and the biopsy specimen from the colon revealed typical CMV cells with CMV inclusions confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, a large number of CMV antigen-positive leukocytes was detected, suggesting an active CMV infection. CMV infection is serious in compromised hosts. Therefore clinicians should be aware of the clinical settings in which this infection can arise and the target organs potentially affected in order to initiate the appropriate intervention.
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8/29. Imaging findings in the rare catastrophic variant of the primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    We report imaging findings in a case of the rare catastrophic variant of antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) characterized by widespread microvascular occlusions, which may lead to multiple organ failure. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with bone marrow necrosis, acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC), focal liver necrosis, subtle patchy splenic infarctions, and bilateral adrenal infarction. The demonstration of multiple microvascular organ involvement (three or more) is crucial for the diagnosis of the catastrophic variant of APS. This can be performed radiologically intra-vitam. Imaging can even reveal subclinical microinfarctions, which are often only diagnosed at autopsy.
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keywords = bone
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9/29. Acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.

    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a heterogeneous disease that occasionally develops with hematological malignancy. However, PAP in association with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is quite rare. Here we present the first report of a patient who developed PAP after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 45-year-old female with AML underwent unrelated CBT. On day 2 after CBT she developed congestive heart failure with diffuse alveolar infiltrates in the bilateral lungs. Despite treatment, the alveolar infiltrates further increased with progression of multiple organ failure (MOF). She died from MOF before hematopoietic recovery on day 27. Post-mortem study revealed that massive amorphous materials positive for periodic acid-Schiff stain filled in the pulmonary alveoli. These findings led to a diagnosis of PAP. The bone marrow was hypocellular without the leukemic cells. The impaired immunity during the period of leukopenia as well as the impaired clearance of surfactant proteins might contribute to the development of PAP.
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10/29. Nosocomial transmission of saccharomyces cerevisiae in bone marrow transplant patients.

    saccharomyces cerevisiae is an unusual cause of clinical infection. We describe three bone marrow transplant patients on a haematology unit who developed possible invasive disease with the organism. Two patients died and both these patients appeared to have a related strain of S. cerevisiae. Screening for S. cerevisiae from throat and stool samples revealed four further patients who were carriers. Genotyping of the invasive and carriage strains demonstrated an indistinguishable strain from patients who had been on the unit at the same time, suggesting cross-infection.
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