Cases reported "multiple organ failure"

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11/501. The first case of H5N1 avian influenza infection in a human with complications of adult respiratory distress syndrome and Reye's syndrome.

    Avian influenza virus was not known to cause systemic infection in humans before. We report a 3-year-old boy with good past health who developed pneumonia caused by H5N1 avian influenza a virus (A/hong kong/156/97). The virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate. There were complications of Reye's syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ system failure. He had a history of receiving aspirin. His adult respiratory distress syndrome did not respond to endotracheal surfactant replacement therapy. He died 6 days after admission. Clinicians should be alert to the importance of a new human influenza strain. ( info)

12/501. multiple organ failure and septic shock in disseminated tuberculosis.

    The diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis should be entertained in all patients with unexplained fever associated with hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly with or without anomalies in liver function tests and haemogram. It should be considered as a possible cause of septic shock especially in patients with typical risk factors such as advanced age, diabetes, alcoholism or immunosuppression. Prompt therapy could be life saving in an otherwise potentially fatal condition. It is therefore appropriate to initiate anti-tuberculosis treatment as soon as such a diagnosis is suspected and not await final confirmation. ( info)

13/501. Bronchoaspiration as a possible cause in a case of tetanus. A reminder on the importance of adulthood immunizations.

    Although preventable by immunization tetanus still takes a large death toll, mostly in developing countries, where adult population is often unprotected and opportune medical care unavailable. We present a case of tetanus in an elderly patient with bronchoaspiration pneumonia after a near-drowning incident, in which no objective entry site could be suspected with as much temporal relation as the bronchoaspiration incident. Bronchoaspiration of organic matter and feces provides both a source of the causative agent and an adequate polymicrobial environment for the development of the disease. It is under such conditions that we propose this unusual entry site as the cause of tetanus in our patient. Special emphasis is made on the importance of adulthood immunization programs and how incidents like this one should be taken into account in the overall care provided to the elderly population. ( info)

14/501. Erythropoietic protoporphyria with fatal liver failure.

    A 33-year-old woman with a history of photosensitivity, persistent abdominal pain, and liver dysfunction was admitted to our department because of abdominal pain and progression of liver dysfunction. On admission, levels of protoporphyrin and coproporphyrin within erythrocytes were markedly increased. Autofluorescent erythrocytes were also detected, leading to a diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria. A liver biopsy specimen revealed cirrhosis with dark brown granules filling hepatocytes, bile canaliculi, and bile ductules. Transfusion of washed erythrocytes, hemodialysis, and administration of cholestyramine and beta-carotene transiently improved levels of porphyrins and liver function. The patient died of rupture of esophageal varices followed by multiple organ failure. However, the treatments were believed to have extended survival. ( info)

15/501. Malakoplakia of the caecum in a kidney-transplant recipient: presentation as acute tumoral perforation and fatal outcome.

    Malakoplakia is a rare pseudotumoral inflammatory disease known to affect immunocompromised subjects, mainly with a history of recurrent escherichia coli infection. The urinary tract is the most frequent site of the disease, although all organs can be involved. In the present article, we report a case of malakoplakia of the caecum, that developed in a 52-year-old man, who had received a kidney transplant 9 years before and had a history of recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections. Malakoplakia presented as acute intestinal perforation, and, despite aggressive surgical and medical management, disease progressed toward a fatal outcome due to sepsis and multiple organ failure 9 months later. A defect in the macrophagic activity was demonstrated. ( info)

16/501. Multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Two patients developed catastrophic multicentric skin necrosis while receiving warfarin to treat venous thromboembolism complicated by immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Patient 1 developed skin necrosis involving the breasts, thighs, and face, as well as venous limb gangrene and bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands, resulting in death. The second patient developed bilateral mammary necrosis necessitating mastectomies, as well as skin necrosis involving the thigh. Neither patient had an identifiable hypercoagulable syndrome, other than HIT. HIT may represent a risk factor for the development of multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN). ( info)

17/501. Combined anti-fungal therapy and surgical resection as treatment of pulmonary zygomycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a rare but severe complication in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report a 49-year-old patient who developed pneumonitis after BMT, due to a mucorales fungus (class Zygomycetes), absidia corymbifera. Infections due to mucormycosis are likely to become increasingly recognized even though the occurrence after BMT has only been described sporadically. We postulate that the patient was contaminated before BMT despite no intensive drug treatment or other iatrogenic features, related to his poor living conditions and developed the infection during aplasia. He immediately received i.v. liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome) and GM-CSF. Because there was no response, the infected area and necrotic tissue were resected. Despite initial clinical and biological improvement and the absence of Mucor on mycological examination post-surgery, the patient died 3 weeks later from bilateral pulmonary infection and multiorgan failure. ( info)

18/501. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis complicated with hypercalcaemia.

    A case of acute progressive disseminated histoplasmosis complicated with hypercalcemia is reported and the literature is reviewed. This and the previously reported cases imply that physicians should have a higher index of suspicion for this infection and the probable underlying diseases resulting from impaired cellular-mediated immunity when encountering patients with hypercalcaemia. ( info)

19/501. aeromonas sobria infection with severe soft tissue damage and segmental necrotizing gastroenteritis in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    A 49-year-old man, who had a 3-year history of liver dysfunction but had not been treated, was admitted to the hospital with a sudden onset of fever and generalized muscle pain. He subsequently developed generalized purpura with scattered hemorrhagic bullae of the skin and massive bloody stools. aeromonas sobria was proven by culture of both blood and bullous fluid. In spite of the extensive treatment with antibiotics and other medications in the intensive care unit (ICU), the patient went into septic shock and died 2 days after admission. Pathological examination on autopsy revealed segmental necrotizing gastroenteritis with bacterial colonies and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, in addition to extensive severe soft tissue damage involving cellulitis and rhabdomyolysis and epidermolysis. Although the prognosis for vibrio vulnificus infection with severe soft tissue damage in patients with liver cirrhosis, malignancy, diabetes mellitus or other pre-existing diseases is poor, the unfavorable progression of aeromonas species, especially A. sobria infection is rare. This is thought to be the first report of an autopsied case. ( info)

20/501. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas. ( info)
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