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1/10. Acute axonal form of guillain-barre syndrome in a multiple sclerosis patient: chance association or linked disorders?

    multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammation, demyelination and gliosis, involving the central nervous system (CNS) and commonly sparing the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Coexistence of CNS and PNS chronic demyelination has been rarely demonstrated in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) and in MS, but the occurrence of acute polyradiculoneuropathy in a patient with MS is even more unusual. We describe the case of a woman with relapsing-remitting MS who presented with an acute severe tetraparesis. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination together with neurophysiological data and sural nerve biopsy study demonstrated an axonal form of guillain-barre syndrome (GBS). It remains unresolved if the association of an axonal form of GBS and MS is fortuitous or, on the contrary, is indicative of the coexistence in some individuals of common pathogenetic mechanisms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral nervous system, nervous system, peripheral, neuropathy, nerve
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2/10. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of multiple sclerosis.

    multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which mostly affects young adults living in the northern hemisphere. It is a disease primarily found in temperate climates, being rare in the tropics and increasing in frequency with distance from the equator. canada has one of the highest prevalence rates in the world. dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations that affect the oral and maxillofacial areas as well as patients' general health. Three of the most frequent oro-facial symptoms include trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal sensory neuropathy and facial palsy. dentists should also be aware of the importance of this disease in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain oro-facial lesions or conditions. This paper reviews 2 cases of multiple sclerosis, highlights its oro-facial manifestations and discusses the dental implications of the disease.
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ranking = 0.01040542349452
keywords = nervous system, neuropathy
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3/10. Longitudinal study of chemokine receptor expression on peripheral lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis: CXCR3 upregulation is associated with relapse.

    The interaction between chemokines and their receptors leads to selective recruitment of cells to foci of inflammation. cross-sectional studies have reported significantly different expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR2 on peripheral blood lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with controls. cells expressing these receptors are likely to play a pathogenic role as suggested by studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Also, immunogenetic studies of nonfunctional CCR5 receptors in MS patients, due to 32delta deletion, demonstrated a delay in time to next relapse. The aims of this study were to detect any changes in the serial expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR3 on peripheral blood CD4 lymphocytes from patients with MS and to correlate the changes with relapses. Upregulation of CXCR3 expression on peripheral blood CD4 lymphocytes was associated with all relapses and CCR5 expression was significantly affected with all relapses. Clinical recovery, with or without intravenous methylprednisolone treatment, coincided with the return of CXCR3 towards baseline in all but one case. Fluctuation in the expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was also significantly greater in clinically stable patients with MS compared with controls, which may be due to subclinical disease activity. These findings provide further support for the view that CXCR3 and CCR5 antagonists could have a therapeutic value in MS.
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ranking = 0.059629663942522
keywords = peripheral
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4/10. Problems in diagnosing cranial base meningioma in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    A 49-year-old patient had been suffering from the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis since the age of 23. Attacks of the disease appeared every 2 years in the form of right-sided hemiparesis, vertigo, and problems in maintaining balance. The symptoms disappeared after treatment. At the age 32 retrobulbar inflammation of the second cranial nerve appeared with visual acuity weakness. The symptoms disappeared after treatment. At the age of 42, bilateral weakness of visual acuity appeared and then epileptic attacks occurred. After surgical treatment of meningioma the symptoms disappeared. Only the features of a psycho-organic syndrome remained. The following attack of MS appeared 2 years after surgical intervention. MRI of the head disclosed numerous demyelinating foci.
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ranking = 6.3858265003363E-5
keywords = nerve
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5/10. Audiovestibular evolution in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    multiple sclerosis is characterized by the presence of multiple plaques within the central nervous system, manifesting as remission and exacerbation of neurologic dysfunction over variable time courses. We present the case of a 20-year-old woman. Before treatment, her auditory brain stem response (ABR) test revealed bilateral prolongation. A caloric test showed canal paresis of the right ear and a normal response on the left. A vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test displayed an absent response in the right ear and a delayed response in the left. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated multiple diffuse high signal lesions in the hemispheres, brain stem, and cerebellum. Six months after treatment, the demyelinating plaques were shown to have resolved spontaneously on MRI. Recovery of caloric responses was anticipated. Bilateral prolongation of ABRs remained, but the VEMP test disclosed a normal response in the right ear and a delayed response in the left. Accordingly, in addition to MRI, caloric tests and ABR and VEMP tests are useful in monitoring the evolution of audiovestibular function in patients with multiple sclerosis.
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ranking = 0.010086078593466
keywords = nervous system
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6/10. Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy during interferonbeta-1b therapy in a patient with childhood-onset multiple sclerosis.

    Interferonbeta-1b (IFNbeta-1b) is commonly used for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). We report a 23-year-old woman with childhood onset relapsing-remitting MS treated with IFNbeta-1b who developed overt chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) immediately after therapy. A baseline conduction study before IFNbeta-1b therapy revealed decreased motor conduction velocities and prolonged F wave latencies in several nerves, but there was no neurological sign indicating neuropathy. The existence of subclinical demyelinating neuropathy before IFNbeta-1b treatment was suggested, although the clinical criteria for CIDP were unfulfilled. Following two months of IFNbeta-1b therapy, numbness of her right upper and lower limbs progressively worsened and all tendon reflexes were depressed. Electrophysiologically, F waves were not evoked in any limbs except for the left ulnar and tibial nerves, which showed marked prolongation of F wave latencies. Moreover, subclinical hyperthyroidism developed in association with high titers of anti-thyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxydase antibodies, which were negative before IFNbeta-1b therapy. These findings indicated that peripheral demyelination worsened at the nerve roots after IFNbeta-1b therapy. In addition to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease, the patient now fulfilled the criteria for probable CIDP. Along with the results of a previous report demonstrating IFNbeta-induced CIDP development in patients with childhood MS, this case underscores IFNbeta as a potential risk factor for CIDP in patients with childhood onset MS.
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ranking = 0.010945512522745
keywords = peripheral, neuropathy, nerve
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7/10. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with natalizumab.

    We describe the clinical course of a patient with multiple sclerosis in whom progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system, developed during treatment with interferon beta-1a and a selective adhesion-molecule blocker, natalizumab. The first PML lesion apparent on magnetic resonance imaging was indistinguishable from a multiple sclerosis lesion. Despite treatment with corticosteroids, cidofovir, and intravenous immune globulin, PML progressed rapidly, rendering the patient quadriparetic, globally aphasic, and minimally responsive. Three months after natalizumab therapy was discontinued, changes consistent with an immune-reconstitution inflammatory syndrome developed. The patient was treated with systemic cytarabine, and two months later, his condition had improved.
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ranking = 0.010086078593466
keywords = nervous system
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8/10. Long time interval between multiple sclerosis onset and occurrence of primary sjogren's syndrome in a woman treated with interferon-beta.

    Primary Sjoren's syndrome with central nervous system involvement can clinically mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). However, SS and MS may coexist. We report here a case of a 48-year-old woman affected by relapsing-remitting MS, good responder to interferon (IFN)-beta 1a, developing sicca complex after 29 years from MS onset. At the age of 48, after 5 years successful treatment with i.m. IFN-beta 1a, xerophtalmia and xerostomia with dysphagia occurred. Autoantibody screening for connective tissue diseases, including anti-ENA, was negative. Schirmer's test showed reduced lacrimal gland function and a minor salivary gland biopsy showed chronic inflammatory infiltration with fibrosis, acinar atrophy and ductal ectasia. According to clinical and pathological findings a diagnosis of SS was made. Other cases of connective tissue diseases after IFN-beta treatment have been described. However, this is, to our knowledge, the first report on the development of primary SS after long time interval from MS onset in a woman treated with IFN-beta. Although there are no evidences about a possible role of IFN-beta in triggering SS yet, a screening for clinical and laboratory signs of SS should be assessed in MS patients during IFN-beta treatment.
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ranking = 0.010086078593466
keywords = nervous system
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9/10. Clinical stabilization and effective B-lymphocyte depletion in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of a patient with fulminant relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    BACKGROUND: The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab effectively depletes B lymphocytes and has been successfully used in the therapy of immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system. A limited effect of rituximab on B lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) was recently reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of rituximab on clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and immunological variables in a patient with relapsing-remitting MS. DESIGN: A patient with relapsing-remitting MS was treated with rituximab. The patient was repeatedly examined clinically and by magnetic resonance imaging. The frequency of peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid B lymphocytes was assessed by flow cytometry before, during, and after rituximab therapy. RESULTS: Rituximab monotherapy resulted in significant clinical improvement. Inflammatory surrogate markers on magnetic resonance imaging were also reduced. B lymphocytes were depleted in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate beneficial clinical effects of rituximab in relapsing-remitting MS, mediated through modulation of humoral systemic and central nervous system intrinsic immune responses. Clinical trials should determine optimal therapeutic strategies for patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
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ranking = 1.0507279373561
keywords = peripheral nervous system, nervous system, peripheral
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10/10. Clonotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid T cells during disease exacerbation and remission in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    Migration of autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system (CNS) compartment is thought to be an important step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To follow the evolution of T cell repertoire in the CNS of a patient with relapsing-remitting MS, we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells obtained during an acute clinical exacerbation, and subsequent disease remission after 13 months of immunomodulatory therapy. T cell receptor CDR3 region length distribution was significantly altered during the relapse, demonstrating the presence of clonally expanded T cells in the CSF. CDR3 spectratyping is a valuable approach to identify disease-associated T cells in the CNS.
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ranking = 0.010086078593466
keywords = nervous system
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