Cases reported "Multiple Sclerosis"

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1/274. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system, peripheral, neuropathy, peripheral nerve, nerve
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2/274. Cranial polyneuropathies in multiple sclerosis: case report and literature review.

    Although cranial neuropathies are common disorders in multiple sclerosis patients, multiple cranial nerve involvement is an unusual occurrence. Correlation of clinical symptoms with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of demyelinating central nervous system lesions can confirm the diagnosis. The authors report on the case of a 43-year-old woman who initially was thought to have suffered a brainstem infarct but, in fact, had developed multiple cranial nerve functional deficits. Treatment of multiple sclerosis remains primarily supportive in nature, with corticosteroids used for acute exacerbations and chronic progression.
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ranking = 0.14501461484638
keywords = nervous system, nerve
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3/274. A multiple sclerosis-like illness in a man harboring the mtDNA 14484 mutation.

    In most cases of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) the only clinical manifestation is visual loss. A multiple sclerosis-like illness has been infrequently reported in association with LHON. Most patients are women harboring the mtDNA 11778 mutation. We present a young man with clinical and paraclinical evidence of a demyelinating process with profound bilateral visual loss who harbored the mtDNA 14484 mutation associated with LHON.
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ranking = 0.049496145238843
keywords = neuropathy
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4/274. Acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis.

    Nystagmus seen only with convergence is unusual. We describe four cases of acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis. The nystagmus was horizontal and asymmetric in all patients. eye movement recordings in one subject showed a conjugate rather than a convergent-divergent relationship of the phase of movement between the two eyes. All patients had evidence of optic neuropathy and cerebellar dysfunction. Occlusion of either eye during fixation of near targets led to divergent drift of the covered eye and a decrease in nystagmus. Intravenous scopolamine reduced nystagmus in one patient. Base-in prisms alleviated symptoms of oscillopsia at near and improving reading visual acuity. Convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus may be more common than currently appreciated, particularly among patients with multiple sclerosis.
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ranking = 0.049496145238843
keywords = neuropathy
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5/274. Is there a role for NK cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis? A case study.

    We report on a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) in which we documented an elevated percentage of activated CD56 natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes. NK cells from the patient lysed preferentially glioblastoma but not neuroblastoma cells. Killing of glial cells was not inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against a monomorphic determinant of MHC class I gene products. Lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell function in the MS patient was comparable to that of controls. Analysis of cytokine production during resting or activated states demonstrated that this patient had a deficit in the ability to secrete T cell derived cytokines associated with increased production of TNFalpha, a product of NK cells. Taken together, these data indicate a possible involvement of NK cells in the pathogenesis of MS.
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ranking = 0.10621293016255
keywords = peripheral
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6/274. Impairment of depth perception in multiple sclerosis is improved by treatment with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with postural instability and an increased risk of falling which is facilitated by a variety of factors including diminished visual acuity, diplopia, ataxia, apraxia of gait, and peripheral neuropathy. Deficient binocular depth perception may also contribute to a higher incidence of postural instability and falling in these patients who, for example, find it an extremely difficult task to walk on uneven ground, over curbs, or up and down steps. I report a 51 year old woman with secondary progressive MS who experienced difficulties with binocular depth perception resulting in frequent falls and injuries. Deficient depth perception was demonstrated also on spontaneous drawing of a cube. Following a series of transcranial treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7,5 picotesla flux density, the patient experienced a major improvement in depth perception which was evident particularly on ascending and descending stairs. These clinical changes were associated with an improvement in spatial organization and depth perception on drawing a cube. These findings suggest that in MS impairment of depth perception, which is encoded in the primary visual cortex (area 17) and visual association cortex (areas 18 and 19), may be improved by administration of AC pulsed EMFs of picotesla flux density. The primary visual cortex is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons which modulate visual information processing. Cerebral serotonin concentrations are diminished in MS patients and at least some aspects of deficient depth perception in MS may be related to dysfunction of serotonergic transmission in the primary visual cortex. It is suggested that transcranial AC pulsed applications of EMFs improve depth perception partly by augmenting serotonergic transmission in the visual cortex.
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ranking = 0.22365382730416
keywords = peripheral, peripheral neuropathy, neuropathy
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7/274. tissue plasminogen activator gene expression in multiple sclerosis brain tissue.

    Recent studies have implicated tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in neurodegeneration. We studied multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue for tPA gene and protein expression in comparison with reference tissue, by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. MS is characterised by demyelination in the central nervous system. In this study, neuronal cell bodies in MS brain showed high expression of tPA mRNA and protein, while in reference brains, staining for protein and mRNA expression were very low in neurons and mostly restricted to blood vessel walls. In MS, there was an additional staining of mononuclear cells within perivascular cuffs and foamy macrophages within demyelinating plaques. In view of evidence that the final process of demyelination in MS is thought to be enzyme-mediated, our work suggests the involvement of tPA and by inference plasmin, in the demyelinating process. Blocking tPA or plasmin activity may be a potentially beneficial therapeutic approach in MS.
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ranking = 0.12903429610142
keywords = nervous system
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8/274. Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis and anti-thyroid autoantibodies.

    The optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis (OSMS), characterized by recurrent involvement of optic nerve and spinal cord with rare brain magnetic resonance imaging lesions, is relatively common among Asians. While individual cases of OSMS with anti-thyroid autoantibodies (ATABs) have been reported, the frequency of ATAbs in OSMS and classical multiple sclerosis has not been studied. We studied serum ATAbs and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 46 Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis: 14 with OSMS, and 32 with non-OSMS. Six patients were positive for ATAbs: five women with OSMS and one man with non-OSMS. The frequency of ATAbs in OSMS (5/14) was significantly higher than that in non-OSMS (1/32; P = 0.007), but the frequency of ANA did not differ between OSMS (3/14) and non-OSMS (6/32; P = 0.99). There may be a pathogenetic link between anti-thyroid autoimmunity and a subgroup of OSMS in Japanese.
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ranking = 0.0079901593724819
keywords = nerve
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9/274. Demyelination in primate autoimmune encephalomyelitis and acute multiple sclerosis lesions: a case for antigen-specific antibody mediation.

    Neuropathological and ultrastructural features of central nervous system demyelination were compared in marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and in 3 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) displaying recent lesions. At the edges of EAE and MS lesions, a zone of myelin vacuolation was common, whereas in the lesion proper, myelin sheaths were consistently transformed into vesiculated membranous networks. These networks became dissociated from axons by cell processes from macrophages. Oligodendrocytes were remarkably spared and evidence of myelin repair was present but not prominent. Axonal pathology was more common in the MS material than in marmoset EAE. Immunocytochemistry, using gold-labeled encephalitogenic peptides of MOG and silver enhancement to detect MOG autoantibodies, revealed the presence of MOG-specific autoantibodies over vesiculated myelin networks. gold-labeled antibody to IgG also gave a positive reaction. gold-labeled peptide of myelin basic protein did not react with MOG/EAE tissue, but the same conjugate gave positive staining in MS (and in marmoset EAE induced by whole white matter), perhaps indicating broader spectrum immunoreactivity or sensitization to myelin antigens. Thus, vesicular disruption of myelin was a constant feature in these evolving, highly active lesions in primate EAE and MS and appeared causally related to the deposition of antigen-specific autoantibodies.
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ranking = 0.12903429610142
keywords = nervous system
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10/274. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    The authors describe five patients with trochlear nerve palsy and MS to characterize this rare association. In two patients, trochlear nerve palsy was the initial clinical manifestation of MS. In the other three patients, this sign occurred after previous neurologic events. MRI did not identify a lesion of the fourth nerve nucleus or fascicle. ophthalmoplegia resolved within 2 months in four of the five patients. A reason this association is rare is that the fascicular course of the trochlear nerve is exposed to little myelin.
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ranking = 0.063921274979855
keywords = nerve
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