Cases reported "Multiple System Atrophy"

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1/4. Mixed multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy: a clinical and pathological report of one case.

    We report a patient who showed pathological features of both multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) at autopsy. The clinical features included severe cerebellar ataxia, autonomic failure, and rigid-akinetic parkinsonism. The clinical diagnosis was MSA. Pathological examination showed severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the putamen, substantia nigra, inferior olive, and the pontine nucleus, and numerous glial cytoplasmic inclusions. In addition, moderate neuronal loss with gliosis was observed in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, and neurofibrillary tangles and tufted astrocytes were seen in the basal ganglia and the brain stem. These findings indicate that the patient had both MSA and PSP. Double-labeling immunofluorescence in the brain stem showed alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity localized in the oligodendrocytes and phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in the neurons and the glia. Co-existence of synucleinopathy and tauopathy is rare.
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keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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2/4. An imaging study of parkinsonism among African-Caribbean and Indian london communities.

    We previously reported on 131 parkinsonian patients of African-Caribbean and Indian origin attending movement disorders clinics in six london hospitals, of whom approximately 20% manifested atypical parkinsonism with a late-onset, akinetic-rigid predominant syndrome, postural instability and minimal resting tremor refractory to levodopa therapy and dopamine agonists (see Hu et al., neurology 2000;54[Suppl.3]: A188 and Hu et al., Mov Disord 2000;15[Suppl.3]:S212). To better elucidate the phenotype of these atypical patients (18)FDG/(18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in a subgroup to look for cortical and striatal metabolic changes suggestive of multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), or dementia with lewy bodies. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rating of cerebral vascular lesion load, putaminal atrophy, and neuropsychological testing were also performed. Discriminant function analysis of (18)F-dopa/(18)FDG striatal metabolism in 43 patients failed to separate atypical ethnic minority from typical Caucasian Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Additionally, atypical Indian and African-Caribbean patients did not show cortical reductions in glucose metabolism suggestive of PSP, CBD, or DLB. Cerebral vascular lesion load rated in these patients did not differ between atypical and typical PD groups, and none of the atypical patients had MRI changes suggestive of MSA or PSP. Our results suggest the atypical parkinsonian phenotype seen in African-Caribbean and Indian patients represents a levodopa-refractory form of PD separate from MSA or PSP in most patients.
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keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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3/4. Pallidal stimulation reduces treatment-induced dyskinesias in "minimal-change" multiple system atrophy.

    deep brain stimulation therapy is increasingly gaining acceptance in the management of levodopa-induced dyskinesia and fluctuations in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. It is generally not recommended for the other forms of parkinsonism such as progressive supranuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy where the response to levodopa is usually poor and disease progression more rapid, making any benefit short-lived. Here, we present an autopsy-confirmed case of "minimal-change" multiple system atrophy in whom pallidal stimulation surgery was effective in abolishing severe levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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4/4. A differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism.

    Parkinsonism is a common, age-related syndrome, characterized by resting tremor, bradykinesias, rigidity, and postural reflex impairment. Though Parkinsonism is not very difficult to recognize, all Parkinsonism is not created equal and it is important to distinguish among the most common identifiable syndromes. This review discusses the key clinical features of these various syndromes, including Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, lewy body disease, vascular Parkinsonism, and Parkinsonism with no clear etiology. Symptomatology and diagnostic testing for each syndrome are discussed and 4 typical cases are analyzed to offer clinicians guidance in making a differential diagnosis for Parkinsonism.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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