Cases reported "Multiple Trauma"

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1/49. Analysis of blunt trauma injuries: vertical deceleration versus horizontal deceleration injuries.

    There are several similarities found in blunt trauma injuries to humans sustained as a result of vertical deceleration (falling) and those sustained as a result of deceleration in a horizontal plane (automobile accidents). However, examination of the patterns of traumatic skeletal injuries can distinguish those injuries associated with falling from heights from those associated with automobile accidents. While there is considerable variation within each type of blunt trauma injury dependent on the angle at which one falls or is struck, there are several characteristic skeletal features associated with each type of trauma. In this study we review both the current literature and human skeletal remains from the University of new mexico's Documented Collection known to have been subjected to blunt trauma. This collection is used to characterize and differentiate the pattern of skeletal injuries to various parts of the body for each type of trauma. These assessments are applied to investigate the traumatic skeletal lesions observed in a forensic case where the manner of death is unknown. Analyses suggest two possible scenarios that would explain the death of the individual investigated, with death most likely related to a vehicular-pedestrian accident.
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2/49. resuscitation of the multitrauma patient with head injury.

    head injury remains the leading cause of death from trauma. The definitive method for eliminating preventable death from traumatic brain injury remains elusive. New research underscores the danger of inadequate or inappropriate support of oxygenation, ventilation, and perfusion to cerebral tissues. The belief that sensitivity to hypotension makes the patient with head injury fundamentally different is critical to nursing strategies. The conventional concept that fluid restriction decreases cerebral edema in patients with head injury must be weighed against mounting evidence that aggressive hemodynamic support decreases the incidence of subsequent organ system failure and secondary brain injury. New evidence has triggered a scrutiny of conventional interventions. A search for optimal treatments based on prospective randomized trials will continue. Development of neuroprotective drugs and use of hypertonic saline may be on the horizon. In an effort to ensure optimal outcome, contemporary trauma nursing must embrace new concepts, shed outmoded therapy, and ensure compliance with the basic tenets of critical care for the multitrauma patient with head injury.
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3/49. Disseminated fatal human cytomegalovirus disease after severe trauma.

    OBJECTIVE: Disseminated human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease is considered to be uncommon in critically ill but otherwise not immunosuppressed patients. We describe the case of a trauma victim who developed fatal HCMV disease that initially presented as pseudomembranous colitis and resulted in sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: Case report of fatal HCMV disease in a previously healthy patient after multiple trauma. SETTING: Surgical intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENT: A 63-yr-old male patient with multiple injuries. INTERVENTIONS AND MEASUREMENTS: Under ICU treatment, symptoms of HCMV reactivation presenting as pseudomembranous colitis appeared 32 days after trauma. Detailed laboratory examinations for HCMV infection were performed, including complement fixation titer, immunoglobulin g and M, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. RESULTS: The intravital detection of HCMV dna in serum, leukocytes, and a colonic biopsy specimen indicated HCMV reactivation. Postmortem examination findings, including positive viral cultures, showed severe disseminated HCMV disease with involvement of the colon and myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of specific clinical symptoms of HCMV disease and the delay until viral culture results are available make an exact and timely diagnosis of HCMV disease difficult. Its prevalence in critically ill but otherwise not immunosuppressed patients is currently unknown and possibly underestimated. Because severe illness or trauma can cause immunodysfunction and, thus, may contribute to an increased rate of HCMV disease, detailed studies are warranted to evaluate the real risk in the ICU setting.
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4/49. Murder and robbery by vehicular impact: true vehicular homicide.

    True vehicular homicides are defined as those occurrences in which a motor vehicle is intentionally used as a weapon in taking of a life. A case is presented in which the deceased was traveling in the front passenger seat of a motor car that was deliberately rammed by a heavy jeep that came in the opposite direction, resulting in a serious frontal collision. Immediately after the impact, while the occupants of the car were lying in a dazed condition, the two persons riding in the jeep escaped with a bag containing money that was in the car, leaving the jeep behind. The impact mainly involved the driver's sides of both vehicles. The driver of the car sustained serious injuries but was found to be alive, whereas the front-seat passenger, who did not show any serious external injuries, was found to be in a collapsed state and was pronounced dead on admission to the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. The autopsy revealed that death was caused by closed hemopericardium from a ruptured right atrium. The evaluation of the external and internal injuries confirmed that the fatal injury and a few serious internal injuries were caused by the seat belt (tertiary-impact injuries). The ruptured right atrium was attributed to blunt abdominal trauma by impacting against the lap belt. The case was a true vehicular homicide in which a motor vehicle had been used as a weapon to kill a person. Various aspects pertaining to road accidents, the safety of the occupants, and the advantage and disadvantage of the safety devices are discussed.
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5/49. Early recognition of acute cardiovascular beriberi by interpretation of hemodynamics.

    Acute fulminant cardiovascular beriberi is an acute thiamine deficiency, which, if not recognized and treated, can lead to high cardiac output failure and death. The symptoms of acute thiamine deficiency include severe lactacidemia, and the presence of a high cardiac output and extremely low oxygen consumption in a patient who is hemodynamically stable. In this case conference, we describe a patient who was diagnosed with acute cardiovascular beriberi.
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6/49. Managing trauma patients with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    ACS is due to a rapid increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Although ACS may occur in both surgical and nonsurgical patients, patients who have abdominal or pelvic trauma and/or require massive fluid replacement are at increased risk. critical care nurses are in a unique position to recognize early signs and symptoms of increased intra-abdominal pressure to ensure timely intervention. Aggressive hemodynamic, pulmonary, and operative management is essential for the optimal outcome of patients with ACS. Without definitive treatment, multisystem organ dysfunction and death ultimately ensue.
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7/49. heparin prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in a patient with multiple injuries: an evidence-based approach to a clinical problem.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a clinical decision-making process by which to determine if heparin prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is appropriate in a specific patient with multiple injuries. DATA SOURCES: A medline search of the literature. Search terms included trauma, heparin, deep venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, phlebitis, and trauma. STUDY SELECTION: Eleven studies were selected from 789 publications using published criteria. incidence, risk and potential for prophylaxis were established through a structured review process. DATA EXTRACTION: After the structured review, a small number of studies were available for the consideration of incidence (2), natural history (4) and prophylactic therapy (2). DATA SYNTHESIS: The incidence of DVT in a patient with such multiple injuries is significant (58%-63%). The resulting risk of pulmonary embolism was 4.3% with an associated 20% death rate. Prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin is associated with a statistically and clinically significant risk reduction for DVT when compared with unfractionated heparin and untreated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Few of the multiple available studies concerning trauma, DVT and pulmonary embolism meet reasonable standards to establish clinical validity. Available guidelines for literature evaluation allow surgeons to select relevant articles for consideration. patients with multiple trauma appear to be at significant risk for DVT. The death rate associated with subsequent pulmonary embolism is significant. There is reasonably good evidence to suggest that low molecular weight heparin will reduce this likelihood without a significant risk of treatment complications.
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8/49. Operating on patients wearing personal identity devices: a report of two cases.

    We report on two patients who have recently required emergency surgery and who were wearing personal identity devices at the time of presentation. The devices bear a telephone number and a message stating that, if found, the management company should be informed of the whereabouts of their owner. We discuss the issues relating to the disclosure of information to a third party in this situation and whether there is any legal obligation to do so. The conclusion of a review of the relevant literature is that the only reason to divulge information to a third party would be if a patient posed a serious risk of death or serious harm to another party. In the majority of foreseeable circumstances, this would not be the case.
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9/49. Rare electrocution due to powerline contact in a hot-air balloon: comparison with fatalities from blunt trauma.

    Powerline contact by hot-air balloons is one of the most frequent concurrences in balloon accidents resulting in injury or death. Injuries and deaths are usually a result of blunt trauma from falls. In this report, we describe the aircraft, the circumstances of the accidents and the autopsy data in two powerline contact accidents involving three deaths, one from electrocution and two, from blunt trauma sustained in falls. Appropriate pilot behavior is briefly discussed.
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10/49. A survey of interhospital transfer of head-injured patients with inadequately treated life-threatening extracranial injuries.

    A 12 month prospective study was undertaken to determine the frequency of untreated life-threatening extracranial injuries in patients transferred to a major trauma centre because of head injury. Of the 43 patients transferred (15 with isolated head injury and 28 with multiple injuries), four (9%) had an untreated life-threatening extracranial injury, which caused death in two. All four patients with untreated extracranial injuries were transferred from hospitals with general surgical staff and facilities. In three of the patients (none with a major head injury), the extracranial injuries were recognized at the referring hospital, but were left untreated in the rush to transfer the patient to a neurosurgical facility. In the fourth patient, who had a severe head injury, recurrent hypotension from a ruptured spleen was mistakenly ascribed to a scalp wound. The series shows that the dangerous practice of hurriedly transferring patients to trauma centres because of actual or perceived head injuries, while leaving major extracranial injuries untreated, continues despite warnings in the literature and the efforts of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons through the Early Management of Severe Trauma programme.
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