Cases reported "Multiple Trauma"

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1/39. Fat necks: modification of a standard surgical airway protocol in the pre-hospital environmental.

    We report two cases of trauma where a surgical airway was required. In both cases soft tissue swelling of the neck made modification of the Advanced Trauma life Support (ATLS) airway guidelines necessary. A gum elastic bougie was used to guide a standard endotracheal tube into a cricothyroidotomy incision and secure the airway. Slight departure from standard techniques may be required in difficult circumstances to achieve a definitive airway.
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2/39. High-energy bilateral talar neck fractures secondary to motocross injury.

    The authors present a case of bilateral Hawkins type II talar neck fractures sustained during a motocross race in a 23 year old man. Due to the complexity of the injuries, open reduction with internal fixation and primary subtalar joint arthrodesis was performed bilaterally. This is one of the few cases of bilateral talar neck fractures reported in the literature in the past 15 years and one of the first utilizing open reduction and internal fixation with concomitant subtalar joint arthrodesis as a primary treatment.
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3/39. Multivascular trauma on an adolescent. Perioperative management.

    Penetrating vascular injury, in particular at the neck, is a life-threatening trauma not only of the nature and the anatomic proximity of cardiovascular, aerodigestive, glandular and neurologic system but also of the development of early and late complications. The following case report describes our experience with a penetrating wound patient, who was admitted to our emergencies twelve hours after the accident. The only demonstrable objective signs included a large hematoma at the right-side of the neck and distended mediastinum on the chest X-ray. As the patient was cardiovascularly unstable he was immediately transported to the theater without any angiography. The mandatory operative exploration was initially unsuccessful and a median sternotomy with a standard cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermia circulatory arrest was established to restore all the vascular lesions. Actually, the patient was in critical condition with a rupture of the right internal jugular vein, a large pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery and an avulsion of the ascending aorta with the suspicion of a cardiac tamponade. The postoperative period lasted two full months, while complications appeared. The substantial message from this multivascular trauma is the early diagnosis of the life-threatening complications as exsanguinations, ventricular fibrillation and the ability to minimize postoperative complications, which will impair the normal functional life of the patient.
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4/39. Traumatic fracture of the hyoid bone: three case presentations of cardiorespiratory compromise secondary to missed diagnosis.

    hyoid bone fractures secondary to blunt trauma other than strangulation are rare (ML Bagnoli et al., J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988; 46: 326-8), accounting for only 0.002 per cent of all fractures. The world literature reports only 21 cases. Surgical intervention involves airway management, treatment of associated pharyngeal perforations, and management of painful symptomatology. The importance of hyoid fracture, however, rests not with the rarity of it, but with the lethal potential of missed diagnosis. We submit three cases with varying presentations and management strategies. All three of our cases incurred injury by blunt trauma to the anterior neck. Two patients required emergent surgical airway after unsuccessful attempts at endotracheal intubation. One patient presented without respiratory distress and was managed conservatively. After fracture, the occult compressive forces of hematoma formation and soft tissue swelling may compromise airway patency. It is our clinical observation that hypoxia develops rapidly and without warning, leading to cardiorespiratory collapse. With endotracheal intubation prohibited by obstruction, a surgical airway must be established and maintained. Recognition of subtle clinical and physical findings are critical to the diagnosis of laryngotracheal complex injuries and may be life-saving in many instances. To ensure a positive outcome, a strong degree of suspicion based on mechanism of injury is mandated.
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5/39. Use of through-and-through guidewire for delivering large stent-grafts into the distal aortic arch.

    The availability of large diameter stent-grafts is now allowing the endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Most aneurysms are closely related to the distal arch and it is thus necessary to pass the delivery systems into the arch to effectively cover the proximal neck. Even with extra-stiff guidewires in position, it may still be difficult to achieve this, as a result of tortuosity at the iliac arteries and the aorta. We detail a technique where a stiff guidewire is passed from a brachial entry point through the aorta and out at the femoral arteriotomy site. This allows extra-support and may enable the delivery system to be passed further into the aortic arch than it could with just the regular guidewire position.
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6/39. Suicides by sharp force: typical and atypical features.

    A total of 65 consecutive cases of suicide by sharp force were investigated by evaluating the autopsy and prosecution department records. Suicides constituted 17% of all fatalities from sharp force autopsied between 1967 and 1996. Young males and persons with a psychiatric history predominated among the persons who chose this "hard" method of suicide. The most common implements used were knives (62%) and razor blades (15%). Cutting injuries in isolation were present in 26, stab injuries in isolation in 24 and a combination of both in 15 fatalities. The number of injuries per case varied from 1 to 37 but 1/3 showed one injury. More than 85% of the cutting injuries were located at the wrist, elbow crease or neck whereas 79% of the stab injuries involved the ventral aspect of the trunk. Perforation of clothing was present in 16 (52%) out of 31 stab injuries to the trunk. Injuries to more than one body region were observed in 34 (52%) cases. Tentative marks were present in 50 (77%) fatalities and the number varied from 1 to 60 per case. Superficial incisions of the fingers were found in 15% with razor blades constituting the weapon in half of these cases. Deviations from these typical patterns occurred not infrequently. The utter determination of the victim to carry it through or the use of unusual weapons resulted in a few bizarre cases which are outlined briefly.
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7/39. Combined carotid artery injury and laryngeal fracture secondary to dog bite: case report.

    Approximately 914 new dog bite injuries requiring emergency department visits occur daily in the united states. Attacks by dogs with training and strength to attack should be triaged cautiously because of the possibility of serious internal injury. A high index of suspicion is needed when treating patients with neck injuries secondary to dog bites. We report a case of successfully treated combined carotid artery and laryngeal injury produced by a dog bite.
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8/39. Laryngotracheal transection in blunt trauma of the neck.

    Laryngotracheal injuries are relatively rare following blunt trauma to the neck and chest but results in a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Complete disruption of the trachea is extremely rare and a systematic approach is needed for early diagnosis and management. The symptoms and physical signs do not necessarily correlate with the severity of injury as was observed in the presented cases here. An early diagnosis and surgical exploration is a must for a reasonably favourable outcome.
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9/39. Three epiphyseal fractures (distal radius and ulna and proximal radius) and a diaphyseal ulnar fracture in a seven-year-old child's forearm.

    SUMMARY: The authors report a rare case of fracture separations at both ends of the radius combined with an epiphyseal and diaphyseal fracture of the ipsilateral ulna. A seven-year-old girl fell one story and sustained a closed injury of her forearm. A closed reduction was unsuccessful, and an open reduction was performed with three of the four fractures being secured with Kirschner wires. These wires were removed one month later, and range-of-motion exercises were started. Thirty months after surgery, both forearms were equal in length, although the proximal radial epiphyseal line appeared partially closed. Joint motions, including forearm rotation, were normal. Radiologically, the ulnar diaphysis and the radial neck were posteriorly convex 20 degrees and 18 degrees, respectively.
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10/39. Concomitant fractures of the femoral head and neck without hip dislocation.

    This case report describes two patients who sustained ipsilateral fractures of the femoral head and femoral neck without dislocation of the hip. The fractures in the two patients resulted from vehicle accidents. The femoral head was fractured in the sagittal plane, and the femoral neck was fractured at the subcapital portion. However, the hip was not dislocated in either patient. Both patients were treated using cementless total hip arthroplasty. These unusual hip injuries have not been reported previously and are not categorized according to any known classification system of hip injuries.
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