Cases reported "Muscle Hypertonia"

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1/66. Hypertonia, hyperreflexia, and excessive startle response in a neonate.

    Following an uneventful gestation, a newborn girl presented with hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, and excessive startle response. nose tap elicited a dramatic head recoil. Her mother had similar symptoms beginning as a child that improved but persisted into adulthood. In addition, several members of mother's family died unexpectedly in infancy. Hypertonia in the newborn period indicates central nervous system dysfunction of several possible causes, most of which are associated with severe cognitive deficits and limited neurological development. ( info)

2/66. Early fatal pontocerebellar hypoplasia in premature twin sisters.

    We report clinical, neuroradiological and neuropathological findings of monozygotic twin sisters born at 30 weeks' gestation, with pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) similar but not identical to type 2 PCH. They presented with hypertonia, jitteriness, spontaneous and provoked myoclonic jerks (hyperekplexia), apnoeic episodes, and progressive microcephaly. They died at 7 weeks of age from respiratory failure. ( info)

3/66. Atypical down syndrome phenotype with severe developmental delay, hypertonia, and seizures in a child with translocation trisomy 21.

    An infant is reported who presented with a de novo 21;21 translocation trisomy 21 and an atypical phenotype for down syndrome (DS). Findings included microcephaly, small stature, downslanting palpebral fissures, absent Brushfield spots, moderate micrognathia, left ptosis, left torticollis, severe developmental delay, seizures, and hypertonia. Further clinical evaluation using both the diagnostic criteria for DS and the Jackson checklist of 25 signs was inconsistent with the diagnosis for DS. blood karyotype revealed: 46,XX, 21,dic(21;21) (p11.2;p11.2). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the trisomy 21 translocation. Both parents had normal karyotypes. Chromosome and FISH analyses were performed on skin fibroblasts. These studies revealed mosaicism for a translocation trisomy 21 cell line as wel as a second cell line consisting of one normal chromosome 21 and a ring chromosome 21 derived from translocation 21q21q which appeared to have a deletion of the critical region for DS involving the distal portion of the thelong arm of chromosome 21. The chromosome findings illustrate an atypical phenotype in the spectrum of mosaic DS and suggest possible mechanisms for the variability of the phenotype. It also emphasizes the importance of evaluating other tissues for mosaicism when presented with atypical clinical findings. ( info)

4/66. nature and nurture in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    We report on a child in whom severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency was exacerbated by a genetic impairment of the folate cycle, causing reduced CSF concentrations of the methyl group donor 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Some patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may benefit from high dose folic acid supplementation, even if plasma concentrations are high. ( info)

5/66. Spontaneous prolonged hypertonic uterine contractions (essential uterine hypertonus) and a possible infective etiology.

    The management of a pregnant woman presenting with prolonged hypertonic uterine contractions (essential uterine hypertonus) and mildly elevated temperature at term is described. histology of the placenta, cord and membranes, following delivery, revealed evidence of chorioamnionitis, funisitis and deciduitis. Our findings raise the possibility that essential uterine hypertonus may have an infective or inflammatory component to its etiology. ( info)

6/66. ALG12 mannosyltransferase defect in congenital disorder of glycosylation type lg.

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes, N-linked glycans are first assembled on the lipid carrier dolichyl pyrophosphate. The GlcNAc(2)Man(9)Glc(3) oligosaccharide is transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptides. Defects along the biosynthetic pathway of N-glycans are associated with severe multisystemic syndromes called congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we describe a deficiency in the ALG12 ER alpha1,6-mannosyltransferase resulting in a novel type of glycosylation disorder. The severe disease was identified in a child presenting with psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, growth retardation, dysmorphic features and anorexia. In the patient's fibroblasts, the biosynthetic intermediate GlcNAc(2)Man(7) oligosaccharide was detected both on the lipid carrier dolichyl pyrophosphate and on newly synthesized glycoproteins, thus pointing to a defect in the dolichyl pyrophosphate-GlcNAc(2)Man(7)-dependent ALG12 alpha1,6 mannosyltransferase. Analysis of the ALG12 cDNA in the CDG patient revealed compound heterozygosity for two point mutations that resulted in the amino acid substitutions T67M and R146Q, respectively. The impact of these mutations on ALG12 protein function was investigated in the saccharomyces cerevisiae alg12 glycosylation mutant by showing that the yeast ALG12 gene bearing the homologous mutations T61M and R161Q and the human mutant ALG12 cDNA alleles failed to normalize the growth defect phenotype of the alg12 yeast model, whereas expression of the normal ALG12 cDNA complemented the yeast mutation. The ALG12 mannosyltransferase defect defines a new type of congenital disorder of glycosylation, designated CDG-Ig. ( info)

7/66. An unexpected difficult laryngoscopy.

    A case of unexpected difficult laryngoscopy in a patient with gross hydrocephalus and generalized hypertonus is described. The 30-month-old girl had no antecedent history of such difficulty, having had two recent uneventful anaesthetics. We suggest that the reason for our inability to open the patient's mouth was a result of contracture of the temporalis muscle. The patient was managed using a laryngeal mask airway with controlled ventilation. ( info)

8/66. cyproheptadine for intrathecal baclofen withdrawal.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of cyproheptadine in the management of acute intrathecal baclofen (ITB) withdrawal. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. SETTING: University hospital with a comprehensive in- and outpatient rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Four patients (3 with spinal cord injury, 1 with cerebral palsy) with implanted ITB infusion pumps for treatment of severe spasticity, who had ITB withdrawal syndrome because of interruption of ITB infusion. INTERVENTIONS: patients were treated with 4 to 8mg of cyproheptadine by mouth every 6 to 8 hours, 5 to 10mg of diazepam by mouth every 6 to 12 hours, 10 to 20mg of baclofen by mouth every 6 hours, and ITB boluses in some cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical signs and symptoms of ITB withdrawal of varying severity were assessed by vital signs (temperature, heart rate), physical examination (reflexes, tone, clonus), and patient report of symptoms (itching, nausea, headache, malaise). RESULTS: The patients in our series improved significantly when the serotonin antagonist cyproheptadine was added to their regimens. fever dropped at least 1.5 degrees C, and heart rate dropped from rates of 120 to 140 to less than 100bpm. Reflexes, tone, and myoclonus also decreased. patients reported dramatic reduction in itching after cyproheptadine. These changes were associated temporally with cyproheptadine dosing. DISCUSSION: Acute ITB withdrawal syndrome occurs frequently in cases of malfunctioning intrathecal infusion pumps or catheters. The syndrome commonly presents with pruritus and increased muscle tone. It can progress rapidly to high fever, altered mental status, seizures, profound muscle rigidity, rhabdomyolysis, brain injury, and death. Current therapy with oral baclofen and benzodiazepines is useful but has variable success, particularly in severe cases. We note that ITB withdrawal is similar to serotonergic syndromes, such as in overdoses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or the popular drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy). We postulate that ITB withdrawal may be a form of serotonergic syndrome that occurs from loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of serotonin. CONCLUSION: cyproheptadine may be a useful adjunct to baclofen and benzodiazepines in the management of acute ITB withdrawal syndrome. ( info)

9/66. cerebrospinal fluid pterins and folates in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: a new phenotype.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity, and occasional seizures. RESULTS: neuroimaging showed bilateral calcification of basal ganglia and white matter. CSF glucose, protein, cell count, and interferon alpha were normal. Abnormal CSF findings included extremely high neopterin (293 to 814 nmol/L; normal 12 to 30 nmol/L) and biopterin (226 to 416 nmol/L; normal 15 to 40 nmol/L) combined with lowered 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (23 to 48 nmol/L; normal 64 to 182 nmol/L) concentrations in two patients. The absence of pleocytosis and normal CSF interferon alpha was a characteristic finding compared to the classic AGS syndrome. Genetic and enzymatic tests excluded disorders of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, including mutation analysis of gtp cyclohydrolase feed-back regulatory protein. CSF investigations in three patients with classic AGS also showed increased pterins and partially lowered folate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal overproduction of pterins is the first biochemical abnormality identified in patients with AGS variants. Long-term substitution with folinic acid (2-4 mg/kg/day) resulted in substantial clinical recovery with normalization of CSF folates and pterins in one patient and clinical improvement in another. The underlying defect remains unknown. ( info)

10/66. Startle disease, or hyperekplexia: response to clonazepam and assignment of the gene (STHE) to chromosome 5q by linkage analysis.

    Familial startle disease (also known as hyperekplexia and congenital "stiff-man" syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by an exaggerated startle reaction of sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli; affected neonates also have severe and occasionally fatal hypertonia. We recently encountered a large, five-generation family with startle disease, and treated 16 patients (including 1 neonate) with clonazepam; all experienced dramatic and sustained improvement. We performed systematic linkage analysis in this family, and found tight linkage between the disease locus and a polymorphic genetic marker locus (colony-stimulating factor receptor, or CSF1R) that has been physically mapped to chromosome 5q33-q35. The maximum odds ratio favoring linkage over nonlinkage is greater than 10,000,000:1 (lod score, 7.10) at 3% recombination. Several genes encoding neurotransmitter receptor components have been physically mapped to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 5q, and are thus candidates for the startle disease gene. The availability of additional large pedigrees with startle disease should facilitate identification and characterization of the gene for this disorder. ( info)
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