Cases reported "Muscle Spasticity"

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1/31. A neurological disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the TATA-binding protein gene: a new polyglutamine disease?

    To investigate whether the expansion of CAG repeats of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) gene is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we have screened 118 patients with various forms of neurological disease and identified a sporadic-onset patient with unique neurologic symptoms consisting of ataxia and intellectual deterioration associated with de novo expansion of the CAG repeat of the TBP gene. The mutant TBP with an expanded polyglutamine stretch (63 glutamines) was demonstrated to be expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines at a level comparable with that of wild-type TBP. The CAG repeat of the TBP gene consists of impure CAG repeat and the de novo expansion involves partial duplication of the CAG repeat. The present study provides new insights into sporadic-onset trinucleotide repeat diseases that involve de novo CAG repeat expansion.
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keywords = ataxia
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2/31. Spasticity due to phenytoin toxicity.

    A young epileptic presented with spasticity as well as ataxia, diplopia and nystagmus; his serum phenytoin level was very high. All the abnormal signs disappeared after withdrawal of phenytoin. Spasticity, hyperreflexia, and clonus are features of phenytoin intoxication, present in this case, which are not commonly seen, and which have rarely been mentioned previously in the literature.
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keywords = ataxia
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3/31. friedreich ataxia with minimal GAA expansion presenting as adult-onset spastic ataxia.

    Around a quarter of friedreich ataxia (FA) patients, despite being homozygous for GAA expansion within the FRDA gene, show atypical presentations. Our aim is to describe the case of three brothers with long-term follow-up suffering from late onset FA manifested with spastic ataxia. The three patients belong to a family with occipital dysplasia (OD) and Chiari I malformation previously reported by us. We have carried out serial examinations since 1977. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and molecular genetic analyses of hereditary ataxias are available in all three patients. Onset of symptoms occurred between 25 and 35 years. The clinical picture consisted of progressive spastic gait, truncal and limb ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, hyperreflexia with knee and ankle clonus and extensor plantar response, and mild hypopallesthesia. Ages at present vary between 50 and 59. One patient is wheelchair-bound but the other two are able to walk with support. Leaving OD aside, skeletal anomalies are not prominent. All three patients showed cardiomyopathy. MR imaging revealed atrophy of the cerebellum and spinal cord. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were normal. Central conduction time of both motor and sensory pathways was delayed or unobtainable. All three patients were homozygous for the GAA expansion, the smaller expanded allele ranging between 131 and 156 repeats. Four heterozygotic carriers were detected among non-ataxic relatives including one with OD; furthermore, an asymptomatic OD patient showed normal genotype. We conclude that adult onset spastic ataxia is a distinctive FA phenotype associated with minimal GAA expansion. This phenotype represents a new cause of selective distal degeneration of central sensory axons. The present concurrence of OD and FA reflects coincidental cosegregation of two different inherited disorders.
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ranking = 13
keywords = ataxia
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4/31. Episodic coma in a new leukodystrophy.

    Among the leukodystrophies of a hypomyelinating nature, childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination exhibits the unique feature of rapid decrease in mental status after relatively minor head injuries or otherwise noncomplicated febrile illnesses. This article reports the case of a child with progressive spastic quadriparesis in whom unconsciousness developed repeatedly as a result of minor head trauma and required prolonged critical-care nursing. Although cognition is believed to be relatively preserved in this disorder, this child developed progressive cognitive decline. A detailed review of the literature is presented along with discussion of the potential mechanisms of neurologic deterioration.
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keywords = ataxia
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5/31. Neurological manifestations of the oculodentodigital dysplasia syndrome.

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) (MIM 164200) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder affecting the development of the face, eyes, limbs and dentition. Neurological complications are thought to be occasional manifestations of the disorder. This report illustrates the neurological manifestations by a pedigree of two ODDD patients with spastic paraparesis, cerebral white matter hyperintensity and basal ganglia hypointensity. A systematic review of the English, French, German and Italian literature on ODDD is also provided to summarize the neurological manifestations of the disorder. 243 previously described ODDD cases presented a spectrum of neurological manifestation including spasticity (25), subcortical white matter lesions (9) and basal ganglia changes (6) on MRI. Additional findings consisted of gaze palsy and squinting (28), bladder and bowel disturbances (21), visual loss (20) and blindness (4), hearing loss (15), ataxia (11), nystagmus (9), muscle weakness (5) and paresthesias (3). Neurological manifestations, including spasticity associated with MRI changes, are an underrecognized feature in the ODDD phenotype. A clinical guide to the neurological manifestations of ODDD may assist in the assessment of patients with this condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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6/31. X-linked myoclonic epilepsy with spasticity and intellectual disability: mutation in the homeobox gene ARX.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new syndrome of X-linked myoclonic epilepsy with generalized spasticity and intellectual disability (XMESID) and identify the gene defect underlying this disorder. methods: The authors studied a family in which six boys over two generations had intractable seizures using a validated seizure questionnaire, clinical examination, and EEG studies. Previous records and investigations were obtained. Information on seizure disorders was obtained on 271 members of the extended family. Molecular genetic analysis included linkage studies and mutational analysis using a positional candidate gene approach. RESULTS: All six affected boys had myoclonic seizures and TCS; two had infantile spasms, but only one had hypsarrhythmia. EEG studies show diffuse background slowing with slow generalized spike wave activity. All affected boys had moderate to profound intellectual disability. Hyperreflexia was observed in obligate carrier women. A late-onset progressive spastic ataxia in the matriarch raises the possibility of late clinical manifestations in obligate carriers. The disorder was mapped to Xp11.2-22.2 with a maximum lod score of 1.8. As recently reported, a missense mutation (1058C>T/P353L) was identified within the homeodomain of the novel human Aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX). CONCLUSIONS: XMESID is a rare X-linked recessive myoclonic epilepsy with spasticity and intellectual disability in boys. Hyperreflexia is found in carrier women. XMESID is associated with a missense mutation in ARX. This disorder is allelic with X-linked infantile spasms (ISSX; MIM 308350) where polyalanine tract expansions are the commonly observed molecular defect. Mutations of ARX are associated with a wide range of phenotypes; functional studies in the future may lend insights to the neurobiology of myoclonic seizures and infantile spasms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ataxia
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7/31. Cutaneous stimulation improves function of a chronic patient with cerebellar damage.

    The prognosis of cerebellar hemorrhage with brain stem compression is known to be poor, and patients who can usually survive are severely disabled with limited benefit from conventional rehabilitation. An innovative cutaneous stimulation was administered to a chronic patient (2 years after the incidence) who has severe ataxia, gait imbalance and limb spasticity caused by cerebellar hemorrhage. After 8 months of intervention, patient's function as evaluated by two functional measures has improved by 40%. In addition, the patient's ataxia and hypotonia have improved significantly in which he has regained the abilities to grasp objects, sit upright, control his equilibrium, and monitor an electric wheelchair. The present case study demonstrated a significant improvement of a chronic severely disabled patient who received the intervention 2 years after the accident, suggesting that the cutaneous stimulation may be a possible effective neurologic intervention.
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ranking = 2
keywords = ataxia
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8/31. A novel mutation in SACS gene in a family from southern italy.

    A form of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia (ARSACS) has been described in the Charlevoix and Saguenay regions of quebec. So far a frameshift and a nonsense mutation have been identified in the SACS gene. The authors report a new mutation (1859insC), leading to a frameshift with a premature termination of the gene product sacsin, in two sisters from consanguineous parents. The phenotype is similar to previously described patients with ARSACS.
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keywords = ataxia
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9/31. Novel SACS mutations in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay type.

    Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is an early-onset familial disease with prominent myelinated fibers in the optic fundus. ARSACS is frequent in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of quebec but rare elsewhere. Mutations in SACS, encoding sacsin, a protein of unknown function, are associated with ARSACS. The authors identified three new SACS mutations in two Italian patients whose phenotype closely matches that of quebec cases, but without retinal striation.
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ranking = 5
keywords = ataxia
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10/31. Identification of a SACS gene missense mutation in ARSACS.

    The authors describe two patients in a Japanese family with autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. They presented early onset spastic ataxia, sensorimotor neuropathy, nystagmus, slurred speech, and hypermyelinated retinal nerve fibers. The authors identified a homozygous missense mutation (T7492C) in the SACS gene, which resulted in the substitution of arginine for tryptophan at amino acid residue 2498 (W2498R).
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ranking = 2
keywords = ataxia
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