Cases reported "Muscle Spasticity"

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1/123. Successful intrathecal ethanol block for intractable spasticity of AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of intrathecal ethanol block to relieve intractable spasticity in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) when long-term intrathecal baclofen infusion cannot be used. methods: A 33-year-old man with AIDS-related PML developed very severe spastic paraparesis (Ashworth rigidity score, 4) and painful muscle spasms. The patient was unable to sit in his wheelchair and remained bed bound. Combined oral baclofen and tizanidine at therapeutical doses were used without any effect on the spasticity. The patient refused the placement of an intrathecal catheter for long-term baclofen infusion. A single intrathecal ethanol (6 ml) injection in the L2-L3 intervertebral space with the patient placed in a lateral Trendelenburg (40 C) position was performed. RESULTS: The procedure was very effective in improving the stiffness (Ashworth rigidity score. 2, after the technique) and the muscle spasms disappeared. No side effects during or after the injection were observed. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal ethanol block is a last but very useful choice for treatment of intractable spasticity in PML and other neurologic disorders in AIDS patients when other oral treatments have failed and intrathecal baclofen infusion is not suitable.
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2/123. Apneustic breathing in children with brainstem damage due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    To confirm the presence of apneusis in patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to clarify which factors influence their respiratory patterns, polygraphic studies were performed on two patients. Apneusis was clinically suspected in both patients who had severe brainstem damage. In one subject, inputs of vagal afferents from the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder often resulted in extreme tachypnea instead of apneusis. lung inflation facilitated expiration during inspiratory arrest. Expiration preceded a periodic inhibition of rigospastic discharge in the right biceps muscle. In the other subject, prolonged inspiratory pauses with cyanosis occurred with or without preceding epileptic seizure. Both phenytoin dose reduction and treatment with tandospirone, a serotonin-1A agonist, were effective in improving the respiratory distress in this subject.
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3/123. An unusual case of hyperekplexia.

    Hyperekplexia is a rare paroxysmal disorder characterized by exaggerated startle response, hypertonia during infancy and a transient increase in tone following startle attacks. We report an unusual case of hyperekplexia in a young man. In addition to common symptoms of the condition, we found generalized spasticity persisting beyond infancy, and facial and skeletal dysmorphism. Because of an unsteady gait with frequent falls and raised serum creatine kinase levels, a congenital myopathy had been suspected in the past and an abnormal muscle biopsy had been documented. We diagnosed hyperekplexia at the age of 21 years on clinical grounds and following the response to pharmacological treatment. A mutation in the alpha1 subunit of the glycine receptor confirmed the diagnosis. A repeated needle muscle biopsy demonstrated mild myopathic changes, which we considered to be secondary to increased muscle tone. This case highlights the diagnostic difficulties of hyperekplexia, particularly in sporadic cases with unusual presentation.
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4/123. Hyper-reflexia without spasticity after unilateral infarct of the medullary pyramid.

    Whether or not a lesion confined to the pyramidal tract produces spasticity in humans remains an unresolved controversy. We have studied a patient with an ischemic lesion of the right medullary pyramid, using objective measures of hyper-reflexia, spasticity, and weakness. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of the biceps muscles was recorded under the following conditions: (1) in response to a tendon tap with an instrumental reflex hammer, (2) in response to imposed quick stretch with motion analysis, and (3) during an isometric holding task. Hyper-reflexia of the involved arm in response to tendon tap was shown to be due primarily to an increase in the gain of the reflex arc. No velocity-dependent increase in the response to quick stretch of the involved arm was present. This was consistent with the absence of detectable spasticity on the clinical exam. These findings suggest that a lesion confined to the medullary pyramid can give rise to weakness and hyper-reflexia without causing spasticity. Moreover, these findings suggest that different anatomical substrates may underlie the clinical phenomena of hyper-reflexia and spasticity.
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5/123. hemorrhage after bone marrow harvest: a case presentation.

    The purpose of this article is to describe the usual procedure and postoperative recovery after an allogeneic bone marrow harvest and to present a case study of an unusual complication of hemorrhage. The case study describes a donor who experienced hemorrhage with severe pain, muscle spasms, and prolonged limitations in range of motion and ambulation. Oncology nurses should inform donors to promptly report persistent pain, spasms, and muscle weakness. Should hemorrhage occur, blood loss should be evaluated, bedrest should be maintained, and cold packs should be applied to the area. Although excessive bleeding is a rare occurrence, nurses should be alert for this complication to prevent pain and activity impairment.
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6/123. Motor control testing of upper limb function after botulinum toxin injection: a case study.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in upper extremity function in a hemiparetic patient after treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX) using motor-control testing (MCT) techniques. DESIGN: Interventional with longitudinal study, open label. SETTING: A children's hospital and a motor-control laboratory at a major academic center. PARTICIPANTS: A 16-year-old male with right hemiparetic cerebral palsy and a healthy 12-year-old control subject. INTERVENTIONS: BTX injections to the elbow and wrist flexors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MCT was used to examine 4 upper extremity movements: forward reach, bilateral rhythmic movements (both muscle homologous and direction homologous), isometric pinch, and hand tapping. The patient was tested before treatment and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks after treatment. In addition, range of motion (ROM), the Ashworth scale of spasticity, Functional Independence Measure, and the mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) sections of the Pediatric Evaluation of the Disability Inventory were performed. RESULTS: Forward reach demonstrated little change initially despite patient reports of "feeling looser." Improvement was noted after 18 weeks, but returned to baseline level at 24 weeks. Bilateral rhythmic movements also showed slight improvement at 18 weeks. Pinch force increased significantly after 2 weeks, but declined again at 6 weeks. Improvements occurred in ROM and the Ashworth rating of spasticity, but were not temporally associated with each other or with MCT results. Functional assessment data did not change during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in more complex motor tasks were noted after significant delay from the time of treatment, while simpler tasks demonstrated a more rapid improvement, followed by a rapid return to baseline levels. This case suggests that MCT techniques can provide quantitative and qualitative data, which can add new information about upper extremity motor disability and the outcome of treatment.
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7/123. High-intensity cycling exercise after a stroke: a single case study.

    Aerobic exercise training has demonstrated positive effects after brain injury. However, therapists express concern regarding the use of effortful exercise in individuals presenting with spasticity or involuntary muscle activity. This study aimed to address this concern and to evaluate whether an intervention of maximal intensity cycling exercise impaired an individual's ability to actively extend his hemiparetic elbow. Using a single case design, it was shown that active elbow extension improved during the period of this investigation, and was not impaired immediately following maximal cycling exercise.
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8/123. Gluteus minimus-induced femoral head deformation in dysplasia of the hip.

    Lateral notching of the femoral head is considered pathognomonic for spastic subluxation of the hip. Less frequently, flattening is seen with extrusion of the femoral head in nonspastic hip dysplasia. The aim of this study was to throw light on its underlying pathomechanism. On the radiographs of 297 hips with developmental dysplasia, lateral flattening of the femoral head was seen in 18 hips (6%), but notching was present in only 1. Of 7 dysplasias due to cerebral palsy, 6 showed lateral notching. The gluteus minimus was felt to be responsible for the lateral femoral head changes as the muscle counteracts lateral migration of the femoral head. Intraoperative dissection of 3 hips supported this view. 1 hip with developmental dysplasia and lateral notching was subjected to a periacetabular osteotomy. At surgery, the tendon of the gluteus minimus was found to fit tightly into the notch. Of 2 hips with spastic dysplasia, 1 presented with and the other without lateral notching. In the hip with lateral notching, the gluteus minimus had a normal appearance and it lay in the defect of the femoral head. In the hip without notching, the gluteus minimus was atrophied with signs of fatty degeneration. We therefore believe that lateral notching is a sign of hypertonicity of the gluteus minimus muscle.
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9/123. Dysesthesia perceived as painful spasticity: A report of 3 cases.

    Lesions of the central nervous system often involve the pyramidal tracts and the sensory pathways to produce spasticity, paresthesias, and dysesthesia. Three patients with intractable spasticity were treated with intrathecal baclofen. Two had an implanted Medtronic SynchroMed pump for long-term delivery of the muscle relaxant. The third patient had undergone a screening trial in which the baclofen was delivered into the intrathecal space through a lumbar catheter. All had excellent relief of spasms on clinical examination, but they reported painful spasms particularly at night. Two of the patients were successfully treated for dysesthesia.
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10/123. Improvement of sleep apnea in a patient with cerebral palsy.

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) can reduce spasticity in adults and children with cerebral palsy. Benefits of ITB therapy include improved Ashworth scores, activities of daily living, and mobility. The impact of ITB therapy on sleep apnea in patients with cerebral palsy has not been reported. This case report describes a 29-yr-old female with mixed spastic athetoid quadriparetic cerebral palsy with dystonia, gross motor function IV, who had sleep apnea, requiring nightly continuous positive airway pressure. She received ITB with the goal to improve her wheelchair positioning and decrease her excessive movements. After the initiation of the ITB, reduction of her spasticity and dystonia was noted, as well as improvement of her sleep apnea. This case suggests that ITB therapy may improve respiratory function through reduction of respiratory muscle spasticity.
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