Cases reported "Muscle Spasticity"

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1/500. Antidepressant exacerbation of spasticity.

    patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may develop depression. This may be related to adjustment to living with an SCI in addition to dealing with complications of the injury, such as spasticity. Pharmacologic treatment of depression can be difficult because of neurochemical and receptor changes that are associated with SCI. Newer antidepressant agents are purported to have selective activity by alteration of serotonergic neurotransmission. A case report is presented that illustrates exacerbation of spasticity by this family of antidepressant medications. Mechanisms possibly explaining this exacerbation of spasticity are the effects of serotonin on motor neuron and reflex activity, denervation supersensitivity, and the serotonin syndrome. Understanding the relationship between serotonergic systems and spasticity can be important in treating depression in patients with spasticity. ( info)

2/500. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach: prolonged methaemoglobinaemia due to inadvertent dapsone poisoning; treatment with methylene blue and exchange transfusion.

    The authors present a case of methaemoglobinaemia of acute onset, with an unusually protracted course. The long persistence of this disorder led to a search for the cause which was eventually traced to medication with dapsone. The latter was found to be inappropriately being taken by the patient instead of an antispasmodic that had been prescribed for a spinal condition; this was because the tablets had been incorrectly labelled and dispensed in a pharmacy. The patient took increasing doses of the presumed 'antispasmodic' tablets as they seemed to lack clinical effect, thus further exacerbating the toxic consequences. Moreover, the patient brought his wrongly labelled tablets into hospital and was allowed to use them there, contrary to normal hospital policy. As treatment for the methaemoglobinaemia both bolus and continuous infusions of methylene blue were used, which probably contributed to the severe haemolysis which followed. Furthermore, the development of a rare side effect of dapsone toxicity, namely that of a sensorimotor neuropathy, is reported. ( info)

3/500. Symptoms of recurrent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal resulting from drug delivery failure: a case report.

    A 24-yr-old, completely (T8) paraplegic male patient presenting with severe spasticity had a drug administration device implanted in April 1991 for continuous intrathecal administration of baclofen. After a period of remarkable improvement in both the spasticity level and his quality of life, the patient experienced several short-lasting episodes of increased spasticity, with severe spasms. Among the possible causes of these deleterious episodes were microcrystalluria, obstipation, a decubitus ulcer, a foreign body in the buttocks, drug tolerance to baclofen, electromagnetic interference, and erroneous filling and programing of the pump. The catheter was the most common source of intrathecal baclofen withdrawal symptoms and had to be changed four times in 5 yr. Intrathecal baclofen administered through an implantable drug administration device is a highly effective but complex and expensive procedure that requires careful patient selection and close monitoring by highly qualified and well-trained health professional. Withdrawal symptoms may be related to noncompliance on the part of the patient, erroneous filling or programing of the pump, depletion of the battery, random component failure, concomitant illness, drug tolerance, or advancement of the disease itself. When failure of the device is suspected, substitution with oral baclofen is recommended until a full work-up is performed to determine the defect. ( info)

4/500. Regression of vasomotor disorders under intrathecal baclofen in a case of spastic paraplegia.

    Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion via a subcutaneously implanted programmable pump has been used in the treatment of severe spasticity. Improvement classically concerns the neurological (hypertonia, spasms, hyperreflexia), urological (bladder function) and other clinically relevant outcomes, such as functional status of daily living. This short note reports on another effect of intrathecal baclofen on vasomotor disorders and cyanosis in the lower limbs, described in a patient with spastic paraplegia. ( info)

5/500. Successful intrathecal ethanol block for intractable spasticity of AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of intrathecal ethanol block to relieve intractable spasticity in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) when long-term intrathecal baclofen infusion cannot be used. methods: A 33-year-old man with AIDS-related PML developed very severe spastic paraparesis (Ashworth rigidity score, 4) and painful muscle spasms. The patient was unable to sit in his wheelchair and remained bed bound. Combined oral baclofen and tizanidine at therapeutical doses were used without any effect on the spasticity. The patient refused the placement of an intrathecal catheter for long-term baclofen infusion. A single intrathecal ethanol (6 ml) injection in the L2-L3 intervertebral space with the patient placed in a lateral Trendelenburg (40 C) position was performed. RESULTS: The procedure was very effective in improving the stiffness (Ashworth rigidity score. 2, after the technique) and the muscle spasms disappeared. No side effects during or after the injection were observed. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal ethanol block is a last but very useful choice for treatment of intractable spasticity in PML and other neurologic disorders in AIDS patients when other oral treatments have failed and intrathecal baclofen infusion is not suitable. ( info)

6/500. Positron emission tomography in juvenile alexander disease.

    A 13-year-old boy with cervical kyphosis was diagnosed as having juvenile alexander disease because of the typical MRI findings, abnormally elevated alphaB-crystallin and heat shock protein 27 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose demonstrated hypometabolism in the frontal white matter corresponding to the areas with leukodystrophy. However, the overlying gray matter preserved normal glucose metabolism. ( info)

7/500. Apneustic breathing in children with brainstem damage due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    To confirm the presence of apneusis in patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to clarify which factors influence their respiratory patterns, polygraphic studies were performed on two patients. Apneusis was clinically suspected in both patients who had severe brainstem damage. In one subject, inputs of vagal afferents from the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder often resulted in extreme tachypnea instead of apneusis. lung inflation facilitated expiration during inspiratory arrest. Expiration preceded a periodic inhibition of rigospastic discharge in the right biceps muscle. In the other subject, prolonged inspiratory pauses with cyanosis occurred with or without preceding epileptic seizure. Both phenytoin dose reduction and treatment with tandospirone, a serotonin-1A agonist, were effective in improving the respiratory distress in this subject. ( info)

8/500. A neurological disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the TATA-binding protein gene: a new polyglutamine disease?

    To investigate whether the expansion of CAG repeats of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) gene is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we have screened 118 patients with various forms of neurological disease and identified a sporadic-onset patient with unique neurologic symptoms consisting of ataxia and intellectual deterioration associated with de novo expansion of the CAG repeat of the TBP gene. The mutant TBP with an expanded polyglutamine stretch (63 glutamines) was demonstrated to be expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines at a level comparable with that of wild-type TBP. The CAG repeat of the TBP gene consists of impure CAG repeat and the de novo expansion involves partial duplication of the CAG repeat. The present study provides new insights into sporadic-onset trinucleotide repeat diseases that involve de novo CAG repeat expansion. ( info)

9/500. Epidural blood patch under fluoroscopic control: non-surgical treatment of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid fistula following implantation of an intrathecal pump system.

    The treatment of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid fistula in the presence of an intrathecal catheter is known to be difficult. Open revision surgery is recommended in the literature, although the rate of recurrence is high. The epidural blood patch technique is well established as a successful treatment for post-dural-puncture headaches. Recent work about the distribution of the injected blood and theoretical considerations about the mechanism of action make this method suitable for the occlusion of spinal leakage even in the presence of an intrathecal catheter. In this note technical details are given for a successful therapy of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid fistula including the right positioning of the opening of the needle (cerebrospinal fluid can be expected intrathecally and epidurally) by injection of contrast medium first for myelography then for epidurography. In this procedure the (epidural) distribution of autologous blood can be indirectly controlled by compression of the dural sac. The method is easy to perform, and the possible risks are small. ( info)

10/500. Two female siblings with a previously unreported MCA/MR syndrome: pre- and postnatal growth retardation, iris colobomata, spasticity, facial dysmorphism and dilated ventricles.

    We report two siblings from non consanguineous parents with a similar MCA/MR syndrome: Pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, mental retardation, iris colobomata, facial dysmorphism, spasticity, dilated ventricles and abnormal immunoglobulin levels. review of published reports and the use of the london Dysmorphology database suggests that these siblings may present a new syndrome. ( info)
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