Cases reported "Muscle Weakness"

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1/31. Spinal arachnoid cyst with weakness in the limbs and abdominal pain.

    A 7-year-old male admitted with neck rigidity, severe pain in the abdomen, and progressive weakness in the lower limbs was diagnosed as having a spinal intramedullary arachnoid cyst. There was a dramatic and immediate recovery after fenestration of the cyst.
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2/31. An uncommon mechanism of brachial plexus injury. A case report.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of brachial plexus injury occurring on the contralateral side in a patient undergoing surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 51-yr-old woman underwent surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach in the left retroauricular area. She had a short neck with a BMI of 32. Under anesthesia, she was placed in supine position with Sugita pins for head fixation. The head was turned 45 degrees to the right side and the neck was slightly flexed for access to the left retroauricular area, with both arms tucked by the side of the body. Postoperatively, she developed weakness in the right upper extremity comparable with palsy of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. hematoma at the right internal jugular vein cannulation site was ruled out by CAT scan and MRI. The only remarkable finding was considerable swelling of the right sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscle group, with some retropharyngeal edema. An EMG confirmed neuropraxia of the upper trunk of brachial plexus. She made a complete recovery of sensory and motor power in the affected limb over the next three months with conservative treatment and physiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: brachial plexus injury is still seen during anesthesia despite the awareness about its etiology. Malpositioning of the neck during prolonged surgery could lead to compression of scalene muscles and venous drainage impedance. The resultant swelling in the structures surrounding the brachial plexus may result in a severe compression.
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3/31. adult-onset nemaline myopathy: Another cause of dropped head.

    A 59-year-old man with severe neck extensor weakness had findings diagnostic of nemaline myopathy on muscle biopsy. review of the literature shows that dropped head occurs in nearly half of the patients with adult-onset nemaline myopathy. Other leading causes of dropped head syndrome are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and isolated neck extensor myopathy.
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4/31. Dropped head syndrome. Three case-reports.

    Dropped head syndrome is characterized by gradual forward sagging of the head due to weakness of the neck extensor muscles. We report three cases in elderly patients seen by rheumatologists at our institution. There was some evidence suggestive of a neurogenic process, whereas most reported cases of dropped head syndrome have been ascribed to myopathy. Dropped head syndrome can probably be produced by multiple causes. The close ties between dropped head syndrome and acquired camptocormia in adults are discussed.
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5/31. Myopathic dropped head syndrome: a syndrome of mixed aetiology.

    We report two patients with myopathic dropped head syndrome, a rare and interesting neuromuscular syndrome characterised by a predominant weakness of the neck extensor muscles. The first patient, a middle aged Chinese man, presented with progressive weakness of neck extension but his clinical course later stabilised despite a lack of response to corticosteroids. Muscle biopsy revealed a necrotising myopathy with no evidence of inflammation. This patient supports the existence of an idiopathic restricted non-inflammatory myopathy, a so called isolated neck extensor myopathy syndrome which is recognised to pursue a less progressive, more benign course. Our second patient had histopathological evidence for polymyositis; there was a favourable response to steroids. Our cases underscore the fact that there may be a spectrum of pathological processes associated with the myopathic dropped head syndrome ranging from non-inflammatory muscle necrosis to a full blown inflammatory myositis.
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6/31. A case of renin-producing adrenocortical cancer.

    Here we report a case of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital complaining of thirst and generalized muscle weakness. She was diagnosed as being hypertensive and diabetic with associated hypokalemia and she had a hard elastic mass with a diameter of 10 cm on the left side of her neck. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a suprarenal mass on the left side (8.5 x 8 x 6.5 cm). Endocrinological examination demonstrated a marked elevation in the patient's serum glucocorticoid and sex steroid hormones as well as plasma renin activity. Histological examination of a sample taken from the neck mass revealed a metastasis from an adrenal carcinoma, which was stained positively with antibodies against cytochrome P450 and renin, establishing the diagnosis of a renin-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. Trilostane was effective in reducing serum cortisol levels, but mitotane was ineffective.
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7/31. Subacute thyroiditis manifesting as fever of unknown origin.

    Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) usually occurs in women in middle age with a viral prodrome, thyroid or neck tenderness, classic symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We report a case in an 81-year-old man who initially had 2 days of fever to 101.2 degrees F, confusion, and bilateral lower extremity weakness. Extensive evaluation was remarkable only for the following laboratory values: thyrotropin (TSH) 0.02 microIU/mL, free thyroxine (FT4) 3.1 ng/dL, free triiodothyronine (FT3) 6.0 pg/mL, and ESR 98 mm/hr. One week later, the patient had persistent fevers to 102 degrees F; no source was found. The fever resolved, and 3 months later the patient had profound hypothyroidism (TSH >44.0 microIU/mL, FT4 0.4 ng/dL, ESR 13 mm/hr). A painless thyroid gland and atypical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are unusual in SAT. When fever is of unknown origin, SAT should be considered even if classic features are absent.
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8/31. Concomitant dermatomyositis and myasthenia gravis presenting with respiratory insufficiency.

    We report a 28-year-old woman with a history of chronic immune-mediated hepatitis, in whom the simultaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis and myasthenia gravis resulted in severe neck extensor weakness and subacute respiratory insufficiency, followed by proximal muscle weakness and external ophthalmoplegia. Radiological signs of a thymoma were absent. The distinguishing clinical, electrophysiological, and biopsy findings are discussed. We suggest that an underlying immunoregulatory disorder was present, explaining the occurrence of three rare immune-mediated diseases in one patient.
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9/31. Axonal pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of guillain-barre syndrome without Anti-GT1a IgG antibody.

    We report two cases of pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of guillain-barre syndrome (GBS). The patients developed dysphagia and weakness of the neck and arms subsequent to campylobacter jejuni infection. Oropharyngeal palsy recovered poorly. Electrophysiological findings demonstrated axonal conduction failure. Anti-GD1a immunoglobulin g (IgG) antibody was detected in one case, and anti-GM1b IgG antibody in another. Anti-GT1a IgG and immunoglobulin m (IgM) antibodies were negative in both cases. The current cases suggest that the PCB and axonal variants of GBS form a continuous spectrum from the viewpoint of electrophysiological studies as well as antiganglioside serology.
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10/31. Licorice-induced hypokalemia as a treatable cause of dropped head syndrome.

    Isolated weakness of the extensor muscles of the neck is a relatively rare condition, known as "dropped head syndrome" (DHS). This paper reports the case of a patient with DHS whose symptoms resolved rapidly on supplementation with potassium and discontinuation of licorice consumption. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of DHS due to licorice-induced hypokalemia.
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