Cases reported "Muscle Weakness"

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1/128. Spinal arachnoid cyst with weakness in the limbs and abdominal pain.

    A 7-year-old male admitted with neck rigidity, severe pain in the abdomen, and progressive weakness in the lower limbs was diagnosed as having a spinal intramedullary arachnoid cyst. There was a dramatic and immediate recovery after fenestration of the cyst.
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2/128. MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease.

    We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies.
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3/128. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach: prolonged methaemoglobinaemia due to inadvertent dapsone poisoning; treatment with methylene blue and exchange transfusion.

    The authors present a case of methaemoglobinaemia of acute onset, with an unusually protracted course. The long persistence of this disorder led to a search for the cause which was eventually traced to medication with dapsone. The latter was found to be inappropriately being taken by the patient instead of an antispasmodic that had been prescribed for a spinal condition; this was because the tablets had been incorrectly labelled and dispensed in a pharmacy. The patient took increasing doses of the presumed 'antispasmodic' tablets as they seemed to lack clinical effect, thus further exacerbating the toxic consequences. Moreover, the patient brought his wrongly labelled tablets into hospital and was allowed to use them there, contrary to normal hospital policy. As treatment for the methaemoglobinaemia both bolus and continuous infusions of methylene blue were used, which probably contributed to the severe haemolysis which followed. Furthermore, the development of a rare side effect of dapsone toxicity, namely that of a sensorimotor neuropathy, is reported.
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4/128. MRI of the spinal cord in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency: two additional cases and a review of the literature.

    Focal spinal cord lesions have been present in all previously reported cases of MRI appearances in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency. We describe two further cases showing mild atrophy only and review the salient features of the previous 11 publications. MRI findings reflect quite closely the known pathological changes in this condition.
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5/128. Neurological deficit following spinal anaesthesia: MRI and CT evidence of spinal cord gas embolism.

    A 62-year-old diabetic woman developed permanent neurological deficits in the legs following spinal anaesthesia. MRI showed oedema in the spinal cord and a small intramedullary focus of signal void at the T10 level, with negative density at CT. Intramedullary gas bubbles have not been reported previously among the possible neurological complications of spinal anaesthesia; a combined ischaemic/embolic mechanism is hypothesised.
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6/128. Cervical cord tethering mimicking focal muscular atrophy.

    spinal cord tethering rarely occurs in the cervical region. In adults, it usually results from previous operations. However, congenital origin is always diagnosed and treated early in the infant period. We report a 12-year-old boy with cervical spinal dysraphism which was erroneously diagnosed as focal muscular atrophy, a benign form of motor neuron disease. The patient was brought to our hospital because of rapid deterioration of symptoms. Careful evaluation disclosed a hairy dimple at the nuchal area, which led to the correct diagnosis. X-ray of the cervical spine showed spina bifida from C(4) to C(6) levels and fusion of the laminae of C(4) and C(5). spine MRI studies disclosed that the cervical cord was tethered caudally and dorsally, and the ventral nerve roots were markedly stretched, especially over the left side. Surgical intervention was undertaken and the patient's muscle power improved after untethering. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the reader with a surgically treatable condition that may appear to be benign focal amyotrophy. skin lesion at the nuchal area should be carefully looked for.
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7/128. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    We describe 4 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) after getting no immediate response from a 3-5 day course of high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. All had clinical features to suggest poor prognosis and MRI findings to indicate extensive white matter changes in the brain. Two patients who had spinal cord involvement as well, required ventilatory support during acute phase of the illness. All the 4 patients recovered dramatically. Recovery pattern suggested that IVIg might be useful in fulminant ADEM. Further trials are needed to look for the efficacy of IVIg alone and in combination with methylprednisolone in the treatment of ADEM.
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8/128. electrodiagnosis in spinal cord injured persons with new weakness or sensory loss: central and peripheral etiologies.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of late neurologic decline of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Retrospective review of persons with SCI over a 9-year period. Those with complaints of new weakness or sensory loss were grouped into three categories based on clinical examination, electrodiagnosis, and imaging: (1) central pathology (ie, brain, spinal cord, or nerve root); (2) peripheral pathology (plexus or peripheral nerve); or (3) no identifiable etiology. The specific diagnoses of late neurologic decline were identified. SETTING: Regional veterans Affairs spinal cord Injury Service. patients: Five hundred two inpatient and outpatient adults with SCI. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of the study population complained of new weakness and/or sensory loss. Neurologic abnormalities were noted in 13.5%, 7.2% with central and 6.4% with peripheral causes. The most common pathologies were posttraumatic syringomyelia (2.4%) and cervical (1.6%) and lumbosacral (1.2%) myelopathy/radiculopathy. A specific etiology was not determined in 6 cases (1.6%). Peripheral involvement was mostly from ulnar nerve entrapment (3.4%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (3.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Late-onset neurologic decline is common after SCI and can result from central or peripheral pathology. Regular neurologic monitoring of SCI patients is recommended, since many with neurologic decline respond favorably if diagnosed and treated early.
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9/128. Proximal diabetic neuropathy presenting with respiratory weakness.

    A patient is described with proximal diabetic neuropathy presenting with respiratory weakness. A 50 year old man developed progressive shortness of breath over 2 months. He also had weakness of hip flexion. phrenic nerve responses were absent, and spontaneous activity was seen in the intercostal and lumbar paraspinal muscles with long duration neurogenic MUPs and reduced recruitment in the diaphragm. Without treatment, the patient began to improve with resolution of his proximal leg weakness and breathing difficulties. Proximal diabetic neuropathy is another cause of neuromuscular respiratory weakness.
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10/128. Distinguishing clinical and electrodiagnostic features of X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy.

    X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy (XLBSN) or Kennedys disease is a rare inherited neuromuscular disease characterized by adult-onset muscle weakness, usually in a limb-girdle distribution. It is frequently misdiagnosed despite a distinctive clinical presentation, usually due to the absence of a clear family history, and perhaps also due to failure of recognition. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for genetic counseling purposes and because alternative diagnoses usually carry a poorer prognosis. We evaluated 4 patients with XLBSN and one symptomatic female heterozygote patient. Based on our clinical observations in these patients and a systematic review of previously reported cases, the following clinical and electrophysiologic features when present in the setting of adult-onset muscle weakness, are strongly suggestive of the disorder: 1) facial weakness, 2) facial twitching or fasciculations, 3) tongue weakness and atrophy, 4) postural hand tremor, 5) hypo- or areflexia, and 6) absent or low-amplitude sensory nerve action potentials despite clinically normal sensation. We also hypothesize regarding the possibility of partial expression of the abnormal XLBSN gene in a symptomatic heterozygote female patient.
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