Cases reported "Muscular Atrophy"

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1/347. Cervical cord tethering mimicking focal muscular atrophy.

    spinal cord tethering rarely occurs in the cervical region. In adults, it usually results from previous operations. However, congenital origin is always diagnosed and treated early in the infant period. We report a 12-year-old boy with cervical spinal dysraphism which was erroneously diagnosed as focal muscular atrophy, a benign form of motor neuron disease. The patient was brought to our hospital because of rapid deterioration of symptoms. Careful evaluation disclosed a hairy dimple at the nuchal area, which led to the correct diagnosis. X-ray of the cervical spine showed spina bifida from C(4) to C(6) levels and fusion of the laminae of C(4) and C(5). spine MRI studies disclosed that the cervical cord was tethered caudally and dorsally, and the ventral nerve roots were markedly stretched, especially over the left side. Surgical intervention was undertaken and the patient's muscle power improved after untethering. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the reader with a surgically treatable condition that may appear to be benign focal amyotrophy. skin lesion at the nuchal area should be carefully looked for.
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2/347. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.
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3/347. Acute quadriplegic myopathy in a 17-month-old boy.

    Acute quadriplegic myopathy is a rare condition associated with the use of nondepolarizing muscle-blocking agents and corticosteroids in the course of severe systemic illness. A 17-month-old boy underwent liver transplantation for fulminant hepatitis. He was intubated for 24 days and treated with vecuronium bromide and high-dose methylprednisolone. The child was weaned from the ventilator and presented extreme weakness in the upper limbs and total paralysis of the lower limbs. serum creatine kinase level was normal and electromyography showed myopathic abnormalities. Muscle biopsy showed severe type-1 fiber atrophy and selective loss of myosin thick filaments was seen on electron microscopy. Scattered regenerating fetal myosin-positive fibers were present, mu calpain was absent, while m calpain was diffusely expressed. Physical therapy was immediately started and the child recovered even though corticosteroids were not discontinued. The pathogenesis of acute quadriplegic myopathy is still unknown. We suggest that it could be due to abnormal protein turnover in the muscle. Several independent factors, such as corticosteroid treatment, immobilization, or cytokines, could take part in a cascade of events that leads to an excessive yet selective degradation of proteins involving myosin thick filaments and possibly components of sarcolemma, causing muscle inexcitability.
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4/347. Unilateral pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia.

    Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) is a focal dystonia of the cervical region. Various treatment modalities have been performed with variable success rates. We present a 42-year-old woman complaining of involuntary head rotation for the last 3 years. Different medical treatments had been used for 3 years. Botulinum toxin injections resulted in temporary and moderate improvement for periods of 3-4 months. Pallidal stimulation was performed using a quadripolar electrode and a battery-operated programmable pulse generator. We conclude that a unilateral pallidal lesion or stimulation is an effective method of treatment in focal dystonia. The target must be the pallidum contralateral to the contracted sternocloidomastoid muscle. deep brain stimulation is superior to lesioning because of the capability of manipulating the stimulation parameters which can modify the pallidotomy effect.
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5/347. ulnar nerve injuries of the hand producing intrinsic muscle denervation on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Muscle and nerve injuries in the hand may be difficult to detect and diagnose clinically. Two cases are reported in which magnetic resonance imaging showed ulnar nerve injury and intrinsic hand muscle denervation. The clinical, anatomical and radiological features of injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve and associated muscle denervation are discussed and illustrated.
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6/347. Complete rupture of the distal semimembranosus tendon with secondary hamstring muscles atrophy: MR findings in two cases.

    Complete rupture of the hamstring muscles is a rare injury. The proximal musculo-tendinous junction is the most frequent site of rupture. We present two cases of complete rupture of the distal semimembranosus tendon, which clinically presented as soft-tissue masses. MR imaging permitted the correct diagnosis. There has been only one other such case reported.
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7/347. Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency with progressive muscle weakness and atrophy caused by new missense mutations in AMPD1 gene: case report in a Japanese patient.

    A 46-year-old woman with exertional myalgia developed slowly progressive weakness in her lower extremities. She had slight muscle weakness in her facial and upper extremities, and severe muscle weakness and atrophy in lower extremities more marked in the proximal portions. serum creatine kinase was slightly elevated. After ischemic forearm exercise test, blood ammonia had no elevation although lactate level increased normally. The computed tomography revealed that a characteristic distribution of skeletal muscle involvement with proximal and flexor muscles more severely affected than distal and extensor in the lower extremities. In addition, the left sternocleidomastoid muscle showed marked atrophy with an asymptomatic weakness of over 20 years duration suggesting abnormal development. Needle EMG examination showed a large number of easily recruited, short-duration, low-amplitude motor unit potentials in all extremities. Muscle biopsy showed absence of adenosine monophosphate deaminase activity with normal cytochrome c oxidase and phosphorylase activity. With the muscle enzyme activity assay, adenosine monophosphate deaminase activity was found to be lower than 0.2% of the controls. The dna analysis revealed that she was compound heterozygote involving two missense mutations (R388W and R425H) in exon 9 and exon 10 of AMPD1 gene. This is the first report of primary myoadenylate deaminase deficiency with progressive weakness and atrophy caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations of AMPD1 gene, and suggests that adenosine monophosphate deaminase is closely related not only to energy metabolism but also to the development of skeletal muscle.
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8/347. Gluteal neuralgia - unusual presentation in an adult with intrasacral meningocele: a case report and review of literature.

    A nineteen year old man with intrasacral meningocele is reported, who presented with long standing episodic gluteal pain and progressive muscle wasting. magnetic resonance imaging established the diagnosis. Surgical excision relieved the pain but muscle wasting persisted. Pertinent literature is reviewed.
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9/347. rhabdomyolysis triggered by an asthmatic attack in a patient with McArdle disease.

    We describe a patient with McArdle disease who developed rhabdomyolysis triggered by a bronchial asthmatic attack. A 64-year-old man had chronic pulmonary emphysema with asthma, and an asthmatic attack led to severe rhabdomyolysis that required continuous hemodiafiltration. After 2 years, a physical examination revealed atrophy of the extremities compared with previous examinations, especially of the intercostal muscles. During that time, he suffered two severe bronchial asthmatic attacks. His serum level of creatinine kinase remained between 4,000 and 7,000 IU/l when he did not suffer from asthmatic attacks and rhabdomyolysis had abated. Therefore, we suspected that his recent muscle atrophy was caused by asthmatic attacks, and discussed the possibility of his respiratory muscle weakness due to McArdle disease in relation to his severe bronchial asthmatic attacks as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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10/347. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report.

    We report the case of a 3-(1/2)-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA). The serum muscle enzymes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.
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