Cases reported "Muscular Diseases"

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1/71. The sternomastoid "tumor" of infancy.

    The sternomastoid "tumor" of infancy is a firm, fibrous mass, appearing at two to three weeks of age. It may or may not be associated with torticollis. Generally, the "tumor" initially grows, then stabilizes, and in about half the cases recedes spontaneously after a few months. It may leave a residual torticollis or may be associated with a facial or cranial asymmetry of a delayed torticollis. The etiology is unknown, a direct cause and effect relationship to birth trauma has been largely disproved although approximately half these children are products of breech deliveries. The treatment is controversial. Approximately half of these "tumors" will resolve spontaneously without sequelae. Progressive torticollis or development of facial asymmetry are considered indications for surgery. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the head and neck surgeon with this entity which may confront him for diagnosis and treatment.
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keywords = neck
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2/71. Atypical and typical cranial dystonia following dental procedures.

    It is generally recognized that focal dystonia of the limbs or cervical region and blepharospasm sometimes follow, and in these cases may be caused or triggered by, peripheral injury. However, the association between peripheral injury and lower cranial dystonia is rare. We report eight cases who developed cranial dystonia within hours to months following a dental procedure. One group of five cases, all women, developed atypical dystonia associated with painful paresthesias at the site of dystonia. Two of these five cases had fixed jaw-deviating dystonia, whereas the remaining three had additional tremor and spread of their dystonia to involve the tongue in all three, and the lips and neck in two cases. These five patients are reminiscent of cases of limb causalgia-dystonia syndrome, which occurs after minor peripheral trauma and can spread. The remaining three cases developed more typical cranial dystonia following the dental procedure. There was no family history of dystonia or prior use of neuroleptics in any of the patients. The close association in time and location of the procedure and onset of symptoms suggests that the onset of the dystonia may have been caused by the dental intervention, but whether there is a causal relationship between the dental intervention and the development of the dyskinesias requires further epidemiologic studies.
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keywords = neck
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3/71. Bilateral sternocleidomastoid tumors of infancy.

    The sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy (STOI) is a relatively uncommon condition. Typically, it presents as a firm, well circumscribed mass within the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in infants 1-8 weeks of age and may be associated with torticollis. This condition must be considered in any infant with a lateral neck mass. The diagnosis can often be made clinically, but unusual presentations may present diagnostic challenges. Although bilateral involvement is rare, it does occur. The second reported case, a 2-week old female with bilateral STOIs and torticollis, is reported. Although many of the characteristics of the masses suggested the condition, the bilateral nature added uncertainty to the clinical impression, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical presentation and management of the STOI are reviewed, and the unusual features of this case are discussed.
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4/71. Infiltrating angiolipoma of the M. temporalis.

    Angiolipomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumours that are distinguished from common lipomas by a marked degree of vascularisation. They are differentiated into non-infiltrating and the even less frequent infiltrating angiolipomas. The present case is the 9th report of an infiltrating angiolipoma of the head and neck. The patient was a 63-year-old man with an infiltrating angiolipoma of the left M. temporalis. Microscopic examination showed univacuolated adipose cells mixed with capillaries invading skeletal muscle. The patient has been free of recurrence since excision of the tumor.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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5/71. Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor involving the neck of a five-week-old infant. Presence of factor xiiia in the lesional cells.

    Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor is an uncommon lesion characterized by hyalinized collagen, psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications, and a predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Although the pathogenesis is unclear, a possible relationship with other inflammatory "pseudotumors" has been proposed. We describe the pathology of two right neck calcifying fibrous pseudotumors present in a five-week-old female infant. The masses had many of the pathologic features of calcifying fibrous pseudotumor. The presence of a florid, mixed infiltrate, and the occurrence of more than one lesion in the same patient, favor the proposal that calcifying fibrous pseudotumor may be a sclerosing end stage of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. However, the presence of a previously undescribed participation of factor xiiia-positive cells suggests that the tumor may be of dermal dendrocyte origin.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neck
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6/71. Myopathic dropped head syndrome: a syndrome of mixed aetiology.

    We report two patients with myopathic dropped head syndrome, a rare and interesting neuromuscular syndrome characterised by a predominant weakness of the neck extensor muscles. The first patient, a middle aged Chinese man, presented with progressive weakness of neck extension but his clinical course later stabilised despite a lack of response to corticosteroids. Muscle biopsy revealed a necrotising myopathy with no evidence of inflammation. This patient supports the existence of an idiopathic restricted non-inflammatory myopathy, a so called isolated neck extensor myopathy syndrome which is recognised to pursue a less progressive, more benign course. Our second patient had histopathological evidence for polymyositis; there was a favourable response to steroids. Our cases underscore the fact that there may be a spectrum of pathological processes associated with the myopathic dropped head syndrome ranging from non-inflammatory muscle necrosis to a full blown inflammatory myositis.
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ranking = 3
keywords = neck
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7/71. Parkinsonism and neck extensor myopathy: a new syndrome or coincidental findings?

    BACKGROUND: Dropped head in parkinsonism has been attributed to dystonia or unbalanced muscle rigidity. To our knowledge, isolated neck extensor myopathy with parkinsonism has been described in only one patient. OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of neck extension weakness resulting in dropped head in patients with parkinsonism and to explore whether the head drop might be the consequence of neck extensor myopathy. patients AND methods: All patients who were evaluated because of parkinsonism in the Department of neurology in our hospital between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1999, and were found to have both parkinsonism and neck extension weakness resulting in head drop were studied. The patients underwent clinical examination, blood tests including the levels of creatine kinase and myoglobin and neurophysiological evaluation with needle electromyography and autonomic tests. Open biopsy on a neck muscle was performed in the patients who could cooperate. RESULTS: Of 459 patients evaluated because of parkinsonism, 7 were found to have neck extensor weakness resulting in head drop. Needle electromyography revealed myopathic changes in all 7 patients. Muscle biopsy, which was performed in 5 patients, disclosed myopathic changes in all 5 patients. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in 2 of these 7 patients. Three of the patients had concomitant neck rigidity that could contribute to the neck position. All 7 patients had autonomic dysfunction and 6 responded poorly to levodopa therapy, making a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy probable. CONCLUSION: Parkinsonism may be associated with isolated neck extensor myopathy resulting in dropped head, and this condition should be suggestive of multiple system atrophy.
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ranking = 13
keywords = neck
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8/71. Submasseteric abscess.

    The masseteric space is an important tissue compartment of the neck, but disease in it is difficult to diagnose and treat. In this paper a case of a young adult male with an abscess of the submasseteric space is presented. Diagnosis was established by computed tomography (CT) of the neck, but the severity of the lesion was not accurately estimated. Surgical intervention was performed and a large quantity of pus was drained. A detailed medical history and clinical examination of the patient as well as CT are important tools in the accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of the disease.
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ranking = 2
keywords = neck
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9/71. Primary echinococcosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    Muscular echinococcosis accounts for 0.5% to 5.4% of all hydatid disease cases, with very little data on the incidence of muscular echinococcosis of the head and neck. We report a unique case of primary echinococcosis of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle in a 56-year-old man. Preoperative assessment by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration did not point to echinococcosis. We suspected the right diagnosis intraoperatively and confirmed it postoperatively by pathohistology and serologic tests. echinococcosis of the liver and the lungs was also excluded postoperatively. Combination of operative treatment and postoperative albendazole herapy in two 28-day cycles one month apart resulted in complete regression of the disease. echinococcosis should be considered as differential diagnosis of a multicystic mass in neck, particularly if it is of longstanding duration. serologic tests for echinococcosis should be included in differential diagnostic procedures for each multicystic formation on the neck, especially in endemic areas.
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ranking = 3
keywords = neck
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10/71. Ascending necrotising fasciitis as a result of odontogenic infection: a report of two cases.

    Necrotising fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection which spreads rapidly through fascial planes, is characterised by soft tissue necrosis and is potentially life-threatening. It is a rare entity in the head and neck region. The management of this condition is difficult and early diagnosis and aggressive surgical and medical management are essential. This paper reports two cases of necrotising fasciitis as a result of ascending odontogenic infection involving the temporalis muscle.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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