Cases reported "Muscular Diseases"

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11/2225. sarcoidosis presenting as a tumorlike muscular lesion. Case report and review of the literature.

    Sarcoid myopathy presenting as a tumorlike lesion is an exceedingly rare presentation of sarcoidosis. Concurrent extramuscular involvement is common. Chest radiographs, if abnormal, may suggest the diagnosis. magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred study for diagnosis and follow-up of tumorous sarcoid myopathy. Optimal therapy is not clear. Favorable responses have been cited with surgery or corticosteroids (alone or in combination). azathioprine or alternative immunosuppressive agents (for example, antimalarials or methotrexate) may have a role in corticosteroid-recalcitrant patients. The role of local radiotherapy is controversial and should be reserved for severe localized disease refractory to aggressive medical therapy. ( info)

12/2225. Chronic renal failure causing brown tumors and myelopathy. Case report and review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    Brown tumors (osteoclastomas) are histologically benign lesions that are caused by primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent complication of chronic renal failure. Skeletal brown tumors are relatively uncommon, and brown tumors that involve the spine are considered very rare. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and hemodialysis-dependent anuric renal failure, in whom spinal cord compression developed due to a brown tumor and pathological fracture at T-9. The patient underwent transthoracic decompressive surgery and spinal reconstruction in which cadaveric femoral allograft and instrumentation were used. Brown tumors of the vertebral column require surgical treatment if medical therapy and parathyroidectomy fail to halt their progression or if acute neurological deterioration occurs. In patients with renal failure bone healing is delayed and there is an increased risk that healing will fail because the metabolic derangements can result in severe osteoporosis. Surgical reconstruction of the spine may require the use of augmentation with instrumentation and aggressive treatment of hyperparathyroidism to achieve successful outcomes. ( info)

13/2225. Myopathy with hexagonally cross-linked tubular arrays: a new autosomal dominant or sporadic congenital myopathy.

    We describe a slowly progressive myopathy with unique crystalloid inclusions in type 2 muscle fibers in a father and his son, as well as one more unrelated individual. The inclusions were strongly eosinophilic and purple by the Gomori method. They were composed of vesicular profiles, approximately 20 nm in cross-diameter, connected by radially arranged double spokes arising at 60 degrees angles. The inclusions were not related to any normal cellular organelle. Extensive immunohistochemical studies failed to reveal their chemical nature. It is suggested that this is a new congenital myopathy with characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions, occurring sporadically or with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. ( info)

14/2225. Papillary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the groin arising from endometriosis.

    A 67-year-old woman presented with rapidly enlarging right anterior thigh mass. Clinical impression was of a primary sarcoma, but the histologic analysis of an incisional biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma with clear cell differentiation. Initially thought to be a metastasis, the malignant tumor appears to have arisen from extraabdominal endometriosis of the right groin. This case shows clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings that may help the orthopaedic surgeon recognize an unusual complication of extrapelvic endometriosis. ( info)

15/2225. Hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic alcoholism.

    A patient with hypokalemic myopathy occurring in the context of chronic alcoholism was reported. A 56-year-old male patient, heavy drinker for 20 years, complained of marked weakness and acutely developing pains in his limbs. The principal clinical findings were weakness and tenderness of the proximal limbs and girdle muscle. He was unable to lift his head or any extremities from the bed. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished, but not absent. There was no sensory disturbance except for muscle tenderness. These clinical manifestations disappeared gradually by abstinence from drinking, and potassium administration therapy, and the patient recovered completely on the 26th day after onset. On the day after admission (8th day), serum potassium value was 2.2 mEq/L, and serum CPK activity was 4270 IU. The ECG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of low potassium content in serum, and the EMG pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of myopathy. These electrophysiological findings had a tendency to recover from this pattern to normal range correspondingly with clinical improvement. The repeated muscle biopsies showed that vacuolation, hyaline degeneration and significant phagocyte infiltration were observed in the muscle on the 9th day after the onset of muscle weakness, and that these pathological findings disappeared almost completely three weeks later. The frequently repeated examinations of potassium content and CPK activity in sera showed that there was a close correlation between these biochemical abnormalities and clinical improvement. The pathogenesis of alcoholic myopathy and significance of CPK abnormality in chronic alcoholism were discussed. ( info)

16/2225. Phenotypic variability in rippling muscle disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotype of hereditary rippling muscle disease (RMD) and to report the results of genetic linkage studies. BACKGROUND: RMD is a rare autosomal-dominant inherited muscle disorder. Individuals complain of muscle stiffness, exercise-induced muscle pain, and cramp-like sensations. The characteristic feature of RMD is increased mechanical muscle irritability, which is electrically silent in electromyographic examinations. methods: Forty-six individuals from two unrelated German kindreds with RMD were examined. Linkage analysis to the RMD locus on chromosome 1q41-q43 was performed. RESULTS: In kindred A, 15 individuals from four generations, and in kindred B, four individuals from three generations had clinical features of RMD. The most consistent clinical findings were percussion-induced rapid muscle contractions (PIRCs) and muscle mounding, which were present in all 19 affected individuals. Only 12 individuals exhibited muscle rippling, indicating that rippling is not always present in RMD. Twelve of 19 individuals had muscle-related complaints, primarily exertional cramps and stiffness. The mean age at the onset of complaints was 22 years (range, 5 to 54 years). Seven of 19 individuals showed only mechanical-induced muscle irritability but did not have muscular symptoms. Genetic analysis excluded linkage to the RMD locus on chromosome 1q4 in both kindreds. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of RMD is variable but generalized PIRCs are the most obvious and reliable clinical feature of RMD. Diagnostic criteria of RMD should include generalized PIRCs in addition to muscle mounding, rippling, and creatine kinase elevation. ( info)

17/2225. Gluteal fibrosis.

    After reviewing the literature the authors discuss the aetiology and pathogenesis of gluteal fibrosis. We believe that the condition occurs more frequently than is thought. If this is borne in mind when dealing with children from four to six years old, presenting with abnormal gaits, an early diagnosis can be made. As regards treatment, we agree with those authors who maintain that if diagnosed early the lesion can be treated successfully by physiotherapy alone. In more advanced cases, Z lengthening of the tendon is indicated. ( info)

18/2225. The syndrome of carnitine deficiency.

    Three cases of lipid storage myopathy and carnitine deficiency are presented. Two had a fatal course and were insensitive to cortisone and carnitine-replacement therapy. The two fatal cases had lipid accumulation in organs other than the skeletal muscles and carnitine was reduced in plasma, skeletal muscles, heart and liver. fibroblasts from one of these "generalized" cases of carnitine deficiency were grown from a skin biopsy. carnitine level, fatty acids uptake and oxidation were not appreciably different between the patients' fibroblasts and those of controls. ( info)

19/2225. Skewed X-inactivation in a manifesting carrier of X-linked myotubular myopathy and in her non-manifesting carrier mother.

    X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a muscle disorder usually affecting newborn males. In the majority of cases, muscle weakness and hypotonia lead to a rapid demise at neonatal age. The responsible MTM1 gene is located in proximal Xq28. Heterozygous carriers are described as being asymptomatic but, in a few cases, mild facial weakness has been reported. We report a family in which a 39-year old female showed severe progressive muscle weakness. XLMTM was initially diagnosed in the male offspring of one of the patient's sisters. The patient, one of her sisters, and their mother were heterozygous carriers for a common MTM1 gene mutation. We found an extremely skewed X-inactivation pattern in the patient and, in the opposite direction, in her non-manifesting carrier mother, thus explaining her normal phenotype and indicating a possible inheritance of skewed X-inactivation. Linkage analysis excluded a possible involvement of the XIST locus at Xq13. ( info)

20/2225. Changes in the cytoskeletal proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and capillaries in acute relaxant-steroid myopathy (ARSM) in contrast to the corticosteroid myopathy.

    Since we reported a case of acute relaxant-steroid myopathy (ARSM) in 1994, we continued histological studies and compared the findings with those in a case of corticosteroid myopathy (CM). It was revealed that (1) dystrophin, spectrin, beta dystroglycan, and sarcoglycans on the cell surface were decreased, (2) regular arrangement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum was lost, and (3) some capillaries were degenerated. Since none of these changes were seen in CM, it became clear that ARSM is different from CM. It was estimated that continuous administration of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant produces a state akin to denervation. Combination of denervation, immobilization and circulatory disturbance in ARSM not only augments the effects of corticosteroids, but they produce changes different from CM, namely impairment of the cell membrane system (both internal and external) and capillary degeneration. ( info)
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