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1/24. Electron microscopic findings of cardiomyopathy with limb girdle muscular dystrophy.

    Cardiac involvement in limb girdle muscular dystrophy has considered to be rare. This is the first report showing the electron microscopic findings of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accompanied with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The findings described in this report indicate that limb girdle muscular dystrophy may be yet another cause of DCM. ( info)

2/24. Beta-sarcoglycanopathy.

    sarcoglycanopathies are relatively rare progressive muscular dystrophies with autosomal recessive inheritance; which belong to the group of limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The phenotype resembles dystrophinopathies due to proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy. Reports from the Indian subcontinent are scarce. The authors report a case of primary beta-sarcoglycanopathy and describe literature pertaining to this rare entity. ( info)

3/24. Cardiac dysrhythmias,cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B.

    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) are characterized by cardiac dysrhythmias, late-onset cardiomyopathy, slowly progressive skeletal myopathy and contractures of the neck, elbows and ankles. The causative mutation is either in the emerin gene (X-linked recessive EDMD) or lamin A/C gene (autosomal dominant EDMD2 or LGMD1B). We report three cases of EDMD, EDMD2 and LGMD1B. A 14-yr-old boy showed limitation of cervical flexion and contractures of both elbows and ankles. Sinus arrest with junctional escape beats was noted. He was diagnosed as X-linked recessive EDMD (MIM 310300). A 28-yr-old female showed severe wasting and weakness of humeroperoneal muscles. Marked limitation of cervical flexion and contractures of both elbows and ankles were noted. Varying degrees of AV block were noted. She was diagnosed as autosomal dominant EDMD2 (MIM 181350). A 41-yr-old female had contractures of both ankles and limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy. ECG revealed atrial tachycardia with high grade AV block. She was diagnosed as autosomal dominant LGMD1B (MIM 159001). Cardiac dysrhythmias in EDMD and LGMD1B include AV block, bradycardia, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and atrial standstill, causing sudden death necessitating pacemaker implantation. Cardiologists should know about these unusual genetic diseases with conduction defects, especially in young adults. ( info)

4/24. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy in a sibling pair with a homozygous Ser606Leu mutation in the alternatively spliced IS2 region of calpain 3.

    Previous family studies revealed a large number of calpain 3 ( CAPN3 ) mutations that cause recessive forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A) with selective atrophy of the proximal limb muscles. Correlations between the nature and site of a particular mutation and its corresponding phenotype, however, can only be established from homozygous mutations, which are particularly rare in the alternatively spliced NS, IS1 and IS2 regions of CAPN3. Here we identified a sibling pair with LGMD2A-type muscular dystrophy caused by a homozygous Ser606Leu (S606L) substitution in the IS2 linker domain. Normal protein levels, unaltered myofibrillar targeting and conserved calcium-induced autocatalytic activity of the mutated protein could be demonstrated in muscle biopsies from one patient. Despite this inconspicuous modification of the IS2 linker between domains III and IV, both patients developed signs and symptoms of the disease within their second decade of life. The unexpected severity of the clinical manifestation points to the high relevance of the calpain 3-specific IS2 segment between domains III and IV. We conclude that the structural motif around the Ser606 residue represents an important functional site that may regulate the transient activation and limited proteolysis of calpain 3. ( info)

5/24. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy presenting as infantile facial diplegia and late-onset limb-girdle myopathy in members of the same family.

    We report a family with markedly variable myopathic weakness due to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The proband developed mild late-onset proximal limb weakness. Her two daughters had severe infantile facial diplegia, initially diagnosed as mobius syndrome, and mild childhood-onset limb weakness and scapular winging. Results of facial muscle electromyography and muscle histopathology supported a myopathic disorder. This case study further highlights the broad clinical spectrum and intrafamily variability in FSHD, and the occasional absence of a positive correlation between fragment size and disease onset. Moreover, this study underscores the importance of considering FSHD in cases of infantile facial diplegia, especially in patients not demonstrating the full clinical features of mobius syndrome. In difficult cases, facial muscle electromyography may help to differentiate myopathic from neuropathic weakness, and help guide further diagnostic studies. ( info)

6/24. Hutterite brothers both affected with two forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy: LGMD2H and LGMD2I.

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is very common in the Hutterite population of the North American Prairies. We have recently reported the homozygous c.1459G>A mutation in TRIM32 associated with LGMD2H. We have also identified Hutterite patients with LGMD2I, homozygous for the common c.826C>A mutation in FKRP. To date, all Hutterites with LGMD have been shown to be homozygous for either the TRIM32 or FKRP mutation. We now report a Hutterite family in which both parents and five sons were all found to be homozygous for the TRIM32 mutation. The father had slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, whereas three sons and their mother, all currently asymptomatic, had normal physical examinations. The remaining two sons (7 and 10 years old), presented with mild decrease in stamina, had normal neuromuscular examinations and were found to be homozygous for the FKRP mutation in addition to the TRIM32 mutation. These two boys do not differ in age at or mode of presentation, physical findings, or serum CK levels compared to age-matched individuals affected with LGMD2I alone. This suggests that the effects of these two mutations are not acting synergistically at this time. It remains to be seen whether there will be signs of interaction between these two mutations as the patients get older. ( info)

7/24. Beta-sarcoglycanopathy (LGMD 2E) in a Spanish family.

    Out of 10 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies reported, 4 are caused by mutations in the genes encoding for sarcoglycans (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-SG). Beta-sarcoglycanopathy (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2E) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder which usually presents a severe progressive clinical course. A complete immunohistochemical evaluation of the sarcoglycan complex should be carried out to direct the mutation analysis approach. The present report concerns a Spanish family with a genetically confirmed beta-sarcoglycanopathy. The patient, a 16-year-old female, offspring of a consanguineous marriage, developed a severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with a Duchenne-like phenotype. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic changes and complete absence of the four sarcoglycans. Genetic analysis demonstrated homozygosis for the M100K missense mutation in exon 3, encoding for the proximal extracellular domain. The parents and one sister were found to be carriers. Missense mutations affecting this domain result in the instability of the entire sarcoglycan complex and lead to severe phenotypes as seen in non-sense mutations. ( info)

8/24. Myotilinopathy: refining the clinical and myopathological phenotype.

    Mutations in myotilin gene (MYOT) have been associated with variable syndromes including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A (LGMD1A) and a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathy (MFM/MYOT). We studied six Spanish patients from three unrelated kindreds and seven patients without family history. Three previously reported and two novel disease-associated MYOT mutations were identified in this group of patients. The disease is characterized by the onset at the age of 42-77 years with muscle weakness initially in distal or proximal leg muscles, eventually spreading to other muscle groups of the lower and upper extremities. Associated signs of cardiomyopathy, respiratory failure and peripheral neuropathy are present in a fraction of patients. Myopathological features of focal myofibrillar destruction resulting in intracytoplasmic deposits, strongly immunoreactive to myotilin, multiple rimmed and centrally or subsarcolemmally located non-rimmed vacuoles and streaming Z-lines, were observed in each patient studied. The Spanish cohort, the largest group of patients studied so far, shares phenotypic features with both LGMD1A and MFM/MYOT variants thus establishing a continuum of phenotypic manifestations characteristic of myotilinopathy, an emerging neuromuscular disorder. ( info)

9/24. Estimate of daily calorie needs for a neuromuscular disease patient receiving noninvasive ventilation.

    The purpose of this report is to estimate the daily caloric intake needed by a person with substantial muscle wasting due to neuromuscular disease and who also uses a ventilator for substantial amounts of time. Although this study was done for a particular individual, its methodology is generalized to any nonambulatory neuromuscular disease patient. The author, the person chosen for this analysis, is a male, limb girdle muscular dystrophy patient, who uses noninvasive ventilation approximately 20 hrs/day. An experimental technique gave a range of energy requirements for the study individual of total energy expenditure (TEE) of 788 kcal/day < or = TEE (experimental) < or = 876 kcal/day, or an average of 832 kcal/day, and the model developed here gave a range of 801 kcal/day < or = TEE (model) < or = 871 kcal/day, or an average of 836 kcal/day. This article examines and then generalizes these results to develop a simple equation that clinicians and nutritionists may use to estimate daily energy needs for ventilated neuromuscular disease patients. Because severe muscle wasting--which we define for the purposes of this article to be <30% of normal--is assumed, this analysis represents a near minimum daily energy need. ( info)

10/24. Co-segregation of LMNA and PMP22 gene mutations in the same family.

    We report here clinical, electrophysiological, and molecular findings in a family affected with two inherited genetic diseases: limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Members of the family carry a novel missense mutation in the LMNA gene and a nonsense mutation in the PMP22 gene. Interestingly, the double LMNA/PMP22 mutations carriers showed clinical features more severe than usually seen in HNPP, and electrophysiological findings suggesting an axonal loss in addition to a typical myelinopathy. This study provides further insights into the relevance of lamin A/C in muscle and nerve. ( info)
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