Cases reported "Muscular Dystrophies"

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1/982. A novel form of familial congenital muscular dystrophy in two adolescents.

    We report on two brothers (the product of first-degree consanguineous marriage; aged 15 and 12 years) who presented with severe hypotonia at birth, proximal muscle weakness associated with delayed motor milestones but normal cognitive function. Investigations (at 4 years of age) revealed mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels (300 and 824 IU/l; N < or = 210). Muscle biopsies showed minimal change myopathy, no neurogenic atrophy but remarkable type-1 fibre predominance (up to 85.5%) without fibre-type disproportion. Clinical examination at 12 and 9 years, respectively, showed mild facial weakness and high-arched palate in both patients. The younger sibling also had ptosis but otherwise normal external ocular muscles. They showed symmetric proximal muscle weakness and wasting associated with calf-muscle hypertrophy. They could walk independently. A repeat muscle biopsy showed advanced dystrophic changes in the younger patient at the age of 10 years. Virtually all the remaining fibres were type 1. immunohistochemistry revealed normal expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), including dystrophin, beta-dystroglycan, alpha-(adhalin), beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan, laminin-alpha2 chain (merosin) and syntrophin. Mild dystrophic features and type-1 fibre predominance (92.5%) were seen in the biopsy of the older patient, whereas immunohistochemistry showed normal expression of the DGC. Both cases also showed clear expression of integrin alpha7 at the muscle fibre surface and in the blood vessels. Three years later, they could still walk, but with difficulty, and the older brother showed enlargement of the tongue and echocardiographic features of left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy. ( info)

2/982. An unusual family of benign "X" linked muscular dystrophy with cardiac involvement.

    A family of benign X-linked muscular dystrophy is described. Two of the 3 affected members appear quite representative of Becker's dystrophy. A third shows no pseudohypertrophy, only gross atrophy, affecting proximal and distal muscles and also shows early onset contractures and electrocardiographic abnormalities and is in these ways much more representative of the variety described by Emery and Dreifuss (1966). Two of the cases have distinctly abnormal electrocardiograms with extensive and deep Q waves and abnormal R/S ratios and VI. Both these have shown progression of electrocardiographic abnormalities during a 2-year follow-up. The family is reported to document this very unusual occurrence. ( info)

3/982. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of DMD due to placental mosaicism of the X-chromosomes: prenatal and postnatal findings in a fetus with a deletion of exons 67-71 of the dystrophin gene.

    prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD) is performed as a routine procedure in many laboratories. The major potential problem is an incorrect diagnosis that could be obtained due to contamination with maternal tissue. We report a case of mosaicism of the X-chromosomes confined to the placenta as a possible source of confusing results in prenatal diagnosis of DMD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this problem in a prenatal DMD diagnosis. ( info)

4/982. Muscle pain as a prominent feature of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): four illustrative case reports.

    Clinical studies of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) rarely report muscle pain as a significant feature of the condition. We report four adult patients with FSHD in whom muscle pain was a presenting complaint and remains their most disabling symptom. These four patients were investigated using a pain questionnaire and diary. Inflammatory and metabolic causes of muscle pain were sought by muscle biopsy and a range of biochemical investigations. All patients reported between three and seven different pains of varying site and nature. None of the group had more than one painfree day per month and all complained of disturbed sleep. While some pains could potentially be attributed to postural problems, others were clearly myalgic in nature, though most often not specifically exercise-related. These myalgic pains could be particularly difficult to control. Results of metabolic investigations and muscle biopsy revealed no clue to the pathogenesis of these pains and there was no evidence for any exceptional inflammatory response. We believe that pain in FSHD is an under-reported but significant symptom and that further work is necessary to determine its prevalence, understand its cause and provide effective treatment. ( info)

5/982. Cardiac transplantation in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier.

    We report here for the first time the case of a symptomatic DMD carrier, who had a heart transplant for a severe dilated cardiomyopathy. dystrophin immunohistochemistry, western blot and analysis of X-chromosome inactivation on leucocytes, and skeletal and cardiac muscle biopsies on the explanted heart were performed. The patient was a heterozygote for exons 50-52 deletion in the dystrophin gene. The number of dystrophin-deficient fibres in the heart was much higher than in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, the explanted heart showed a non-skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, as in leukocytes and skeletal muscle. The adverse cardiac course may be explained by the absence of regeneration among cardiomyocytes. ( info)

6/982. Newly recognized exons induced by a splicing abnormality from an intronic mutation of the dystrophin gene resulting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Mutations in brief no. 213. Online.

    A boy with the clinical phenotype of Duchenne muscular dystrophy had no detectable deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene by the routine multiplex PCR method. In mRNA extracted from his muscle biopsy, newly recognized extra-exons of 172 bp and 202 bp were present between exon 25 and 26 suggesting a splicing abnormality. Genomic dna of the intron 25 including the above insertions were amplified and sequenced. There was one nucleotide substitution of A-to-G at 2 Kb downstream from the 5' end of intron 25 which formed consensus dinucleotide 'GT' motif for 5' splice site resulting in aberrant splicing. This is the first patient who had a mutation at the central part of an intron of the dystrophin gene instead of at the exon-intron border. ( info)

7/982. calpain III mutation analysis of a heterogeneous limb-girdle muscular dystrophy population.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of calpain III mutations in a heterogeneous limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) population. BACKGROUND: Mutations of the calpain III gene have been shown to cause a subset of autosomal recessive LGMDs. Patient populations studied to date have been primarily of French and Spanish origin, in which calpain III may cause 30% of autosomal recessive MDs. The incidence of calpain III mutations in non-French/Spanish MD patients has not been studied thoroughly. No sensitive and specific biopsy screening methods for detecting patients with abnormal calpain III protein are available. Thus, detection of patients relies on direct detection of gene mutations. methods: The authors studied the calpain III gene in 107 MD patient muscle biopsies exhibiting normal dystrophin. Muscle biopsy rna was produced for each patient, and the entire calpain III complementary dna was screened for mutations by reverse-transcriptase PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism using three different conditions. RESULTS: The authors identified nine patients (eight unrelated) with causative mutations. Six of the seven distinct mutations identified are novel mutations and have not been described previously. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that approximately 9.2% of patients in the heterogeneous population with an LGMD diagnosis will show mutations of the calpain III gene. Interestingly, two patients were heterozygous for a single mutation at the dna level, whereas only the mutant allele was observed at the rna level. This suggests that there are undetectable, nondeletion mutations that ablate expression of the calpain III gene. ( info)

8/982. Pharyngeal dysphagia caused by isolated myogen dystrophy of musculus cricopharyngeus.

    Five patients suffering from idiopathic cricopharyngeal dysfunction (without Zenker's diverticulum) were treated surgically. Together with cricopharyngeomyotomy biopsies were taken at the level of the cricopharyngeus. Histological, enzyme hystochemical and electronmicroscopic examinations were performed on all patients. In two cases the histology revealed myogen dystrophy (presence of necrosis, myophagocytosis, abnormal fiber structure, basophilic fibers, fibrosis, mild cellular reaction and predominancy of fiber type I). Since the complete patient evaluation (clinical features, electromyography, serum creatinin phosphokinase level, etc.) could rule out any general, muscle disorders, the cause of the idiopathic pharyngeal dysfunction must have been in these two cases an isolated myogen dystrophy of the cricopharyngeus. ( info)

9/982. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for task-specific activation of developmentally abnormal visual association cortex.

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 36-year-old woman with muscular dystrophy, intractable epilepsy, and bilateral temporo-occipital lissencephaly. We observed islands of task-specific activation in lissencephalic cortex homologous to visual association regions activated in normal subjects on the same visual confrontation naming task. This result suggests lissencephalic cortex may develop specific functional connections with other brain regions. ( info)

10/982. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy associated with abnormal cerebral cortical gyration: an autopsy study.

    We report clinical, biopsy and autopsy findings in a merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) infant with abnormal cortical gyration. brain showed polymicrogyria and occipital agyria with marginal neuroglial heterotopia and inferior vermis hypoplasia. There was a normal pattern of myelination consistent with early age. laminin alpha 2 chain was also absent in myocardium, brain pial-glial membrane, brain and skin blood vessels as well as intramuscular and skin nerves. Occasional basal lamina gaps were found in muscle fibres but not in brain-blood vessels. This is the first autopsy study in a merosin-deficient CMD case with abnormal cortical gyration. ( info)
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