Cases reported "Muscular Dystrophies"

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1/83. Congenital muscular dystrophy with central and peripheral nervous system involvement in a Belgian patient.

    We report a patient with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), developmental brain defects, and peripheral neuropathy. Marked hypotonia and plagiocephaly were noted at birth. failure to thrive, generalized muscle weakness and wasting, absent deep tendon reflexes, partial seizures, and secondary microcephaly developed. brain MRI showed a large area of cortical dysplasia, a thin but complete corpus callosum, and diffuse ventriculomegaly. Nerve conduction velocities were slow and creatine kinase levels only mildly elevated. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features with normal merosin, sarcoglycan, and dystrophin immunostaining. The Japanese Fukuyama CMD founder mutation was not detected. This is the first report of a patient with merosin-positive CMD, cobblestone lissencephaly, and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral nervous system, nervous system, peripheral, neuropathy
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2/83. Rigid spine syndrome. Two case-reports.

    Rigid spine syndrome is characterized by massive spinal rigidity, usually most marked in the cervical region. Stiffness of the peripheral joints is sometimes present. We report two cases. Patient 1 was a 12-year-old boy diagnosed at three years of age with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy because of delayed onset of walking. contracture of the Achilles tendons, flexion contracture of the elbows, and loss of motion of the cervical spine were the main findings during the current evaluation. Radiographs of the affected joints were normal. An electrocardiogram showed an incomplete left bundle branch block. Muscle enzyme activities were moderately elevated. A myopathic pattern was seen on the electromyogram. A muscle biopsy showed muscle fiber atrophy with peri- and endomysial fibrosis. Patient 2 was a 39-year-old man with a five-year history of isolated rigidity of the cervical spine thought to be due to a spondylarthropathy. Extension was the only movement possible at the cervical spine. The peripheral joints showed no motion range limitation. Findings were normal from radiographs of the spine and sacroiliac joints, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate determination, an electromyogram, and muscle enzyme activity assays. A muscle biopsy showed muscle fiber atrophy with peri- and endomysial fibrosis. DISCUSSION: Rigid spine syndrome is rare in rheumatological practice and can simulate a number of other muscle and joint diseases. Peri- and endomysial fibrosis may be strongly suggestive, although nonpathognomonic. Involvement of the heart governs the prognosis.
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ranking = 0.006933433466664
keywords = peripheral
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3/83. Familial scapuloperoneal myopathy and mitochondrial dna defect.

    The authors present 13 members of 4 generations in a family with scapuloperoneal myopathy. The disease showed autosomal dominant inheritance. In all 6 patients examined, the disease began in the third decade (18-31 years). Initially the shoulder girdle was involved, and the process slowly spread to the distal part of the lower extremities in several years or decades. The facial and pelvic muscles were only moderately involved; ocular muscle involvement was absent. Myopathy was proved by electromyography and muscle biopsy. In 1 case, electrophysiological evidence of peripheral neuropathy was found, and in 3 other patients central nervous system involvement (dementia, epilepsy) and optic atrophy complicated the syndrome. In the youngest patient, a mutation could be found in the 'hot-spot region' of the muscle mitochondrial dna by polymerase chain reaction.
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ranking = 0.0089795166335933
keywords = nervous system, peripheral, neuropathy
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4/83. Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy with mental retardation and cataracts: a new entity in two families.

    Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy is a heterogenous group of disorders with varying clinical presentations and severity. In general, central nervous system involvement is not present. There is also evidence for still unclassified forms. Here we report three cases in two families with merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy, mild mental retardation, bilateral cataracts and normal cranial magnetic resonance imaging. To our knowledge, such an association has not been reported previously, and thus is a new entity within congenital muscular dystrophy nosology.
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ranking = 0.0051740951880599
keywords = nervous system
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5/83. brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy.

    We report the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 23 patients with merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Twelve patients had normal scans. Eight other children had essentially normal scans but showed mild non-specific periventricular white matter changes. Three children had structural abnormalities on imaging. The first patient, a 15-month-old boy with hypotonia, muscle weakness and global development delay, had moderate cerebellar atrophy and mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles. The second child, a 3-year-old ambulant girl with subtle learning problems, had mild cerebellar hypoplasia and a large subarachnoid space when scanned at 16 months. The third patient, a 15-year-old ambulant male with normal intelligence and complex partial seizures, had polymicrogyria of both temporoparietal lobes on brain MRI. The clinical features and motor ability of children with merosin-positive CMD are variable, although usually milder than merosin-deficient CMD. Our findings confirm that central nervous system involvement can occur in some merosin-positive cases. We suggest performing brain MRI in children with merosin-positive CMD, as this may help in our understanding of this very heterogeneous disease.
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ranking = 0.0051740951880599
keywords = nervous system
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6/83. Congenital muscular dystrophy associated with calf hypertrophy, microcephaly and severe mental retardation in three Italian families: evidence for a novel CMD syndrome.

    We describe four Italian patients (aged 3, 4, 12, and 13 years ) affected by a novel autosomal form of recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. These patients were from three non-consanguineous families and presented an almost identical phenotype. This was characterized by hypotonia at birth, joint contractures associated with severe psychomotor retardation, absent speech, inability to walk and almost no interest in their surroundings. In addition, all patients had a striking enlargement of the calf and quadriceps muscles. Ophthalmologic examination revealed no structural ocular abnormalities in any of the children; one patient had severe myopia. In all cases a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an abnormal posterior cranial fossa with enlargement of the cisterna magna and variable hypoplasia of the vermis of the cerebellum. Abnormality of the white matter was also present in all patients, in the form of patchy signal most evident in the periventricular areas. serum CK was grossly elevated in all. The muscle biopsy from all cases showed dystrophic changes compatible with congenital muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence studies showed mild to moderate partial deficiency of laminin alpha 2 chain. Linkage analysis in the only informative family excluded the known loci for congenital muscular dystrophy, including laminin alpha 2 chain on chromosome 6q2, the Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy locus on 9q3 and the muscle-eye-brain disease on chromosome 1p3. We propose that this represent a novel severe variant of congenital muscular dystrophy, with associated central nervous system involvement.
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ranking = 0.0051740951880599
keywords = nervous system
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7/83. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy with mental retardation and cerebellar cysts unlinked to the LAMA2, FCMD and MEB loci.

    We report a case of congenital muscular dystrophy with secondary merosin deficiency, structural involvement of the central nervous system and mental retardation in an 8-year-old girl from a consanguineous family. She had early-onset hypotonia, generalized muscle wasting, with weakness especially of the neck muscles, joint contractures, mental retardation and high creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic changes with partial deficiency of the laminin alpha(2) chain. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple small cysts in the cerebellum, without cerebral cortical dysplasia or white matter changes. The laminin alpha(2) chain (6q2), Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (9q31-q33) and muscle-eye-brain disease (1p32-p34) loci were all excluded by linkage analysis. We suggest that this case represents a new entity in the nosology of congenital muscular dystrophy.
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ranking = 0.0051740951880599
keywords = nervous system
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8/83. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: further evidence of a chromosome 14 locus.

    In 1995 Laing et al. (Am J Hum Genet 56(1995)422) described a single family with nine members affected by an autosomal dominant infantile onset distal myopathy. This family generated a lod score of 2.6 for a locus on chromosome 14. We describe two families with an infantile onset distal myopathy: a new family with four affected members and the family previously described by Scoppetta et al. (Acta Neurol Scand 92(1955)122) in both of which haplotype segregation was compatible with linkage to the same chromosome 14 locus, generating LOD scores of 0.9 at a penetrance of 100% for the markers D14S283 and D14S64 (theta=0) in both families. The loci for autosomal recessive hereditary inclusion body myopathy and Nonaka myopathy on chromosome 9 and for autosomal dominant distal myopathy of Markesberry-Griggs and Udd on chromosome 2q31-33 were excluded by linkage analysis. The disease followed a uniform course with selective wasting of the anterior tibial muscles, starting in infancy and recognizable by a characteristic clinical sign of the 'hanging big toe'. This was followed by slow progression, with involvement of the finger and wrist extensor muscles in the third decade and proximal limb muscles in the fourth decade. Interestingly, we also found evidence of an accompanying mild peripheral neuropathy in the oldest individual with hypomyelination of numerous large myelinated fibres. In addition, this patient's muscle biopsy also showed autophagic vacuoles and numerous intranuclear tubulo-filamentous inclusions of 15-20 nm diameter. Given that all three families with infantile onset distal myopathy are compatible with linkage to the same locus on chromosome 14, this study supports evidence for, and enlarges the clinical and neuropathological spectrum of the distal myopathy on chromosome 14.
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ranking = 0.0038054214455334
keywords = peripheral, neuropathy
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9/83. Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy with mental retardation, microcephaly and central nervous system abnormalities unlinked to the Fukuyama muscular dystrophy and muscular-eye-brain loci: report of three siblings.

    Classical merosin (2 laminin)-positive congenital muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous subgroup of disorders; a few cases characterized by severe mental retardation, brain involvement and no ocular abnormalities were called Fukuyama-like congenital muscular dystrophy. We report a family of healthy non-consanguineous parents, with four affected siblings, of which one died at the age of 7 months due to an intercurrent illness, who presented congenital hypotonia, severe mental retardation, microcephaly, delayed psychomotor development, generalized muscular wasting and weakness with mild facial involvement, calf pseudohypertrophy, joint contractures and areflexia. Muscle biopsy disclosed severe muscular dystrophy. Immunostaining for laminin 2 80 kDa and clone Mer3/22B2 monoclonal antibodies, 1 and 1 chain was preserved. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with pontocerebellar hypoplasia, bilateral opercular abnormalities and focal cortical dysplasia as well as minute periventricular white matter changes. Clusters of small T2-weighted focal hyperintensities in both cerebellar hemispheres consistent with cysts were observed in two of the three siblings studied with magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmologic and cardiologic examination was normal. Haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers excluded the Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, LAMA2 and muscle-eye-brain disease loci. Thus, a wider spectrum of phenotypes, gene defects and protein deficiencies might be involved in congenital muscular dystrophy with brain abnormalities.
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ranking = 0.020696380752239
keywords = nervous system
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10/83. Neurogenic involvement in a case of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with a 15-year history of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) harboring a (GCG)11 mutation of the poly(A)-binding protein 2 (PABP2) gene. He developed, early in the course of the disease, a severe chronic axonal neuropathy. Although the primary myopathic origin of the disease appears to be established, a small number of cases of OPMD with neuropathic features have been described. This case raises the question of a possible neurogenic component to this disease and the role of the length of the mutation in phenotype severity.
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ranking = 0.00033870471220141
keywords = neuropathy
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