Cases reported "Muscular Dystrophies"

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11/982. Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy with transient brain dysmyelination, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and mental retardation.

    The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders. Among these, the laminin alpha 2 chain 'merosin' deficient CMD is caused by mutations of the LAMA2 gene on chr 6q2 and Fukuyama CMD is linked to chr 9q31. We report a 7-year-old boy who was born to consanguineous healthy parents. His motor and mental development were slow. creatine kinase (CK) was elevated (2.100 U/l), and the muscle biopsy was dystrophic. He sat unsupported at 12 months and took his first steps at 3 years of age. At 6 years of age he could walk up to 500 m. He was mentally retarded and spoke single words only. At 1 year, MR imaging of the brain showed abnormal increased periventricular T2-signal, consistent with dysmyelination as well as pontocerebellar hypoplasia and several cerebellar cysts. The pattern of gyration was normal. Follow-up at 4 years showed normalization of the previously abnormal periventricular T2-signal. Immunohistochemical analysis of the skeletal muscle showed normal expression of laminin alpha 2 for a C-terminal antibody and antibodies to the 300 and 150 kDa fragments, as well as of laminins alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma 1. The boy has two healthy younger brothers. Linkage analysis excluded the candidate loci on chromosomes 6q2 and 9q31. As such, the patient's data are suggestive of a new form of laminin alpha 2 positive CMD characterized by transient brain dysmyelination, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and mental retardation. ( info)

12/982. Characterization of two nonsense mutations in the human dystrophin gene.

    Forty Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from the province of Moravia in the czech republic, who were previously found negative for large deletions in the dystrophin gene, were tested for the presence of point mutations in selected exons. Besides several intron and exon polymorphisms, two cases of nonsense mutations were detected in exon 70, thus causing the loss of the C-terminal domain of dystrophin. One of these, the mutation, S3365X, is newly reported here while the other, R3381X, has been described previously. These mutations, only 16 bp distant from each other, have a very different impact on the mental abilities of the corresponding patients. ( info)

13/982. Changes at P183 of emerin weaken its protein-protein interactions resulting in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is an X-linked recessive muscular dystrophy characterized by early contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons and spine, slowly progressive muscle wasting and weakness, and cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac conduction defects. The emerin gene has been mapped to Xq28 and encodes a 34-kDa serine-rich protein, emerin, which has been localized to the nuclear envelope in a wide variety of tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations spanning the emerin gene have been identified in patients with EDMD. We present here the effect, on emerin protein expression, of two missense mutations identified in unrelated EDMD patients. These alterations predict the replacement of a proline residue at position 183 with either a histidine or a threonine. Biochemical analysis has demonstrated that the mobility and expression levels of the mutant forms of emerin are indistinguishable from that of wild-type emerin, but that they have weakened interactions with nuclear lamina components. In comparison with the usual EDMD phenotype, patients with P183 missense mutations have a later age at onset of first symptoms, elbow contractures, ankle contractures, upper limb weakness and lower limb weakness, but there is no difference for the age at onset of cardiac involvement. This is the first report of protein studies on patients with missense mutations resulting in the clinical features of EDMD. These studies demonstrate the importance of proline 183 for the proper structure/function of emerin. ( info)

14/982. In utero fetal muscle biopsy: a precious aid for the prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    prenatal diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy can usually be performed using dna analysis. This approach would be impossible when there is only one prior affected male and no identifiable gene deletion. Therefore, in utero fetal thigh muscle biopsy with direct examination of muscle by dystrophin analysis may provide the only means of prenatal diagnosis. We report such a case in which fetal muscle biopsy was able to exclude Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A detailed literature review of the topic is provided. ( info)

15/982. Cardiac involvement in Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: a case series.

    Three patients with Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy are reported. Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is an X linked muscular dystrophy, in which locomotor involvement is characteristically mild and slowly progressive. The effect on the heart becomes apparent in the teenage years and is characterised by cardiac conduction defects and infiltration of the myocardium by fibrous and adipose tissue. It first affects the atria, which results in atrial paralysis; treatment with ventricular pacing is usually needed. female carriers can develop heart problems and are at risk of sudden death. Relatives of affected patients should be offered screening with electrocardiography and echocardiography. ( info)

16/982. Severe clinical expression in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a relatively rare benign neuromuscular disorder which can vary remarkably in onset, course and severity. In the present study, a TCTAC deletion spanning the nucleotides 631-635 of the emerin gene caused an unusually severe disease phenotype including loss of ambulation and severe muscle wasting in two affected brothers. The same mutation has been reported previously in an unrelated family showing a significantly milder phenotype. The interfamilial heterogeneity in distribution and in severity of the features in the two families point to environmental or genetic modification as the cause of clinical variability in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. ( info)

17/982. rhabdomyolysis in association with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of rhabdomyolysis which developed in a child with a known history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, following an anesthetic which included sevoflurane. CLINICAL FEATURES: An 11 yr old boy with a known history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy underwent anesthesia for strabismus repair. The anesthetic consisted of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide without the use of a muscle relaxant. His postoperative course was complicated by a complaint of heel pain and the development of myoglobinuria. He was treated with dantrolene sodium and discharged home after two days, without further complication. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane anesthesia has not been shown previously to be associated with the development of acute rhabdomyolysis in a child with a history of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. As with halothane and isoflurane, the continued use of sevoflurane in the presence of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy should be questioned. ( info)

18/982. Merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy in two siblings with cataract and slight mental retardation.

    We report on two siblings that have been followed for 14 years, with merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), cataract, retinitis pigmentosa, dysversion of the optic disc, but no cerebral anomalies, except for microcephaly and slight mental retardation (MR). The younger child had three generalized seizures easily controlled by anticonvulsant therapy. Both children presented hypotonia from birth, delayed psychomotor development, generalized muscular weakness, and atrophy and joint contractures of knees and ankles. The course of the disease, apparently static during the first 10 years of life, became progressive during the second decade with loss of deambulation by the age of 13. creatine kinase was increased in both children. Bilateral cataract was diagnosed at 6-months of age. In spite of the occurrence of microcephaly, MR was slight and the siblings acquired reading and writing skills after the aged 10. head magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results in both siblings. The classification of these cases within the broad spectrum of CMD is difficult since most of the known muscle-eye-brain syndromes generally show severe MR and brain anomalies. We consider these cases as corresponding to the rarer syndromes of merosin-positive CMD with associated features such as cataract and MR that were particularly emphasized during the 50th ENMC International Workshop on CMD [Dubowitz V. Workshop report: 50th ENMC International workshop on congenital muscular dystrophy. Neuromusc Disord 1997;7:539-547]. Further genetic, pathological, neuroradiological, and immunocytochemical studies will be necessary for better elucidation of the classification and pathogenesis of CMD. ( info)

19/982. Undetectable dystrophin can still result in a relatively benign phenotype of dystrophinopathy.

    We present here a 28-year-old male patient with Becker muscular dystrophy whose skeletal muscle showed an absence of dystrophin. He has had progressive and predominantly proximal muscular wasting since 5 years of age, but was able to walk until 26 years of age. He showed hypertrophic calves, cardiomyopathy, and an elevated serum creatine kinase level (934 U/1). A skeletal muscle biopsy revealed advanced chronic myopathic changes. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-dystrophin antibodies against C-terminus showed deficiency of the protein. Rod domain and N-terminus were also absent in almost all muscle fibers, but only in a small part of the sample, they were faintly stained. beta-Dystroglycan and utrophin were present only in a small number of muscle fibers. dna and RT-PCR analysis showed a frame-shift deletion of exons 3-7 in the dystrophin gene. In such an exceptional case as this one, it is important to investigate the factors which determine the severity of dystrophinopathy. ( info)

20/982. Congenital muscular dystrophy with central and peripheral nervous system involvement in a Belgian patient.

    We report a patient with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), developmental brain defects, and peripheral neuropathy. Marked hypotonia and plagiocephaly were noted at birth. failure to thrive, generalized muscle weakness and wasting, absent deep tendon reflexes, partial seizures, and secondary microcephaly developed. brain MRI showed a large area of cortical dysplasia, a thin but complete corpus callosum, and diffuse ventriculomegaly. Nerve conduction velocities were slow and creatine kinase levels only mildly elevated. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features with normal merosin, sarcoglycan, and dystrophin immunostaining. The Japanese Fukuyama CMD founder mutation was not detected. This is the first report of a patient with merosin-positive CMD, cobblestone lissencephaly, and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. ( info)
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