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1/2. PGD for dystrophin gene deletions using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (Xp21). In two-thirds of DMD/BMD cases, the mutation is a large deletion of one or several exons. We have established PGD for DMD/BMD using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on single nuclei from blastomeres for the detection of deletions of specific exons in the dystrophin gene. We performed PGD for two carrier females; one had a deletion of exons 45-50 (DMD), and the other had a deletion of exons 45-48 (BMD). An exon 45-specific probe was used in combination with probes for the X and Y centromeres. Using this straightforward approach, we can distinguish affected and unaffected male embryos as well as carrier female and normal female embryos. Three cycles were performed for each patient, which resulted in a pregnancy and the birth of a healthy girl. To the best of our knowledge, this approach for PGD has not been previously reported. The use of interphase FISH is an attractive alternative to sexing or PCR-based mutation detection for PGD patients with known deletions of the dystrophin gene.
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2/2. Proof of principle and first cases using preimplantation genetic haplotyping--a paradigm shift for embryo diagnosis.

    Preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) proof-of-principle was demonstrated by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of single buccal cells from a female donor and genotyping using 12 polymorphic markers within the dystrophin gene; the known paternal genotype enabled identification of the paternal haplotype in the MDA products despite 27% allele dropout. MDA amplified dna from 49 single human blastomeres with 100% success. The MDA products were genotyped using a total of 57 polymorphic markers for chromosomes 1, 7, 13, 18, 21, X and Y; 72% of alleles amplified providing results at 90% of the loci tested. A PGH cycle was carried out for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. One embryo was biopsied: PGH showed a non-carrier female, which was transferred with no resulting pregnancy. A PGH cycle was carried out for cystic fibrosis. Seven embryos were biopsied and PGH allowed the exclusion of 2 affected embryos; a carrier and a non-carrier embryo were transferred resulting in an on-going twin pregnancy. PGH represents a paradigm shift in embryo diagnosis, as one panel of markers can be used for all carriers of the same monogenic disease, bypassing the need for development of mutation-specific tests, and widening the scope and availability of preimplantation genetic testing.
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keywords = preimplantation, embryo
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