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1/61. Orthopaedic management in four cases of mucolipidosis type III.

    Four patients with mucolipidosis type III, three of them brothers, were seen initially in the first two decades of life. Their main symptoms were carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger fingers and generalized joint stiffness. Radiographs showed spinal deformities and hip dysplasia, but these were not causing pain. carpal tunnel syndrome was treated surgically but joint stiffness and hip and knee contractures were managed by physiotherapy. Up to the age of 24 none of these patients has had pelvic osteotomy for hip dysplasia; this operation, not yet reported in mucolipidosis type III, may eventually be necessary. ( info)

2/61. Pentasomy X and hyper IgE syndrome: co-existence of two distinct genetic disorders.

    We describe a 10-year-old girl with features of a penta-X syndrome. cytogenetic analysis revealed a 49,XXXXX karyotype and molecular analysis of X-linked polymorphic markers showed that this aneuploidy arose by successive maternal non disjunctions. Apart from these features the patient has a lifelong history of eczema, recurrent pneumonia, and staphylococcal abscesses. Together with consistently increased serum IgE levels, low antibody responses, and low levels of serum IgA and IgG2, these findings are characteristic for the hyper IgE syndrome. While pentasomy X may be due to sequential non disjunctions in meiosis I and meiosis II in the mother, the underlying pathomechanism in hyper IgE syndrome remains unclear. This case is the first with co-existence of pentasomy X and hyper IgE syndromes. ( info)

3/61. musculoskeletal abnormalities in velocardiofacial syndrome.

    This is the first case report detailing the musculoskeletal pathology and treatment ramifications associated with velocardiofacial syndrome. Orthopaedic manifestations include scoliosis, clubfoot, Sprengel's deformity, generalized ligamentous laxity that is especially problematic about the knee, and epiphyseal dysplasia that is most notable in the lateral humeral condyle, lateral femoral condyle, and femoral head. ( info)

4/61. Coexistence of oto-palato-digital syndrome type II and Arnold-Chiari I malformation in an infant.

    A Taiwanese infant with clinically apparent oto-palato-digital syndrome type II had Arnold-Chiari I malformation. Arnold-Chiari I malformation has not been reported previously to occur in association with oto-palato-digital type II syndrome. The pathogenesis of both conditions has remain unclear although the Arnold-Cliari I malformation is most likely due to a developmental abnormality of improperly times or incomplete closure of the neural tube. We propose the physician who care for children with OPD type II must be aware of one more condition. ( info)

5/61. Syndrome of autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys with skeletal and facial anomalies is not linked to the ARPKD gene locus on chromosome 6p.

    We report on two sibs, both males, one born at 37 the other at 24 weeks of gestation, both with a syndrome similar to that seen in three sets of sibs by Gillessen-Kaesbach et al. [1993: Am J Med Genet 45:511-518]. Both propositi had polycystic kidneys and hepatic fibrosis indistinguishable from that seen in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), and skeletal and facial anomalies. Skeletal abnormalities included "butterfly" vertebrae, square shape of pelvis, and brachymelia. The facial anomalies included hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, and anteverted nares. Additional external findings were apparently low-set ears and a short neck. Histopathological examination of the kidneys showed radial orientation and cystic dilatation of the cortical and medullar tubules. The liver showed "congenital hepatic fibrosis." The hepatic findings in the second infant were less severe. Renal abnormalities were limited to focal tubular cystic changes. Linkage analysis with polymorphic markers of the region 6p21.1-p12, flanking the gene locus of ARPKD, showed different haplotypes in the sibs, thus excluding the ARPKD gene locus in this family and indicating genetic heterogeneity. ( info)

6/61. coffin-lowry syndrome and premature tooth loss: a case report.

    coffin-lowry syndrome was first described by Coffin in 1966 and later by Lowry in 1971. Several oral manifestations have been described previously. We report a case with additional information on the histology of prematurely exfoliated teeth. ( info)

7/61. association of sympathomimetic drugs with malformations.

    We observed 2 cases of severe limb defects in infants following the use of sympathomimetic drugs during pregnancy. The mother of I had taken large doses of Primatene (ephedrine, theophylline, phenobarbital) as tablets and mist throughout pregnancy. The infant was born with oligoectrosyndactyly. In the other infant, maternal ingestion of sympathomimetic drugs including Triaminic (pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine) was associated with distal limb defects. Experimental studies in pregnant rabbits using Primatene in both low and high dosage resulted in limb reduction defects and other malformations in a significant number of the offspring compared with controls. Limb defects in the offspring of chicks following exposure to sympathomimetic drugs had previously been observed. We suggest that these agents may be teratogenic in the human and should be used with great caution or avoided during pregnancy. ( info)

8/61. Unilateral bowing of long bones and multiple congenital anomalies in a child born to a mother with gestational diabetes.

    We report on a new-born girl with multiple congenital anomalies consisting of major skeletal anomalies restricted to the left side, cleft palate, ventricular and atrial septal defect, retromicrognathia, short neck, dysplastic low-set ears and large birth weight. The left-side bony anomalies include shortening and bowing of the femur and tibia, hypoplasia of the fibula, hip dislocation, clubfoot and mild shortening of the long tubular bones in the left arm with elbow dislocation. The pregnancy was complicated by insulin-dependent gestational diabetes mellitus in the mother. The radiographic features were not consistent with the diagnosis of campomelic dysplasia, kyphomelic dysplasia or other skeletal dysplasias characterized by bowing and shortening of the long bones. To our knowledge, the multiple congenital anomalies, including major skeletal malformations, present in our case have never been simultaneously reported until now. A maternal diabetes syndrome in this infant is probable. The occurrence of major congenital malformations in offspring of women with gestational diabetes is reviewed and discussed. We provide evidence that gestational diabetes mellitus could be teratogenic. We recommend a careful diabetic control in every woman with a history of gestational diabetes. ( info)

9/61. uruguay facio-cardio-musculo-skeletal syndrome: a novel X-linked recessive disorder.

    We report on three male patients from a single family with a brachyturricephaly, "pugilistic" facial appearance, a muffled voice, cardiomyopathy, muscular hypertrophy, broad hands, wide feet with progressive pes cavus deformities, dislocation of toes, variable congenital hip dislocation, and scoliosis. Three other males in the family, now deceased from cardiac disease, appear to have had the same disorder. The mother of the propositus has milder signs of the syndrome. All affected males are related through the maternal line. These cases represent an apparently previously undescribed X-linked recessive syndrome. ( info)

10/61. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for Shwachman-diamond syndrome.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by pancreatic insufficiency, short stature, skeletal abnormalities and bone marrow dysfunction. patients with SDS have varying degrees of marrow aplasia, which can be severe or progress to leukemic transformation. While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be curative for the hematologic disturbances of SDS, a recent review of the literature reveals few survivors. Poor outcome with HSCT is often related to excessive cardiac and other organ toxicity from transplant preparative therapy. We describe two young children with SDS who developed aplastic anemia and subsequently underwent successful allografting using a non-cardiotoxic conditioning regimen. Case 1 received marrow from an HLA-identical sibling while case 2 received partially matched umbilical cord blood from an unrelated donor. Both patients are presently alive and well with sustained donor engraftment and excellent hematopoietic function at 36 and 22 months post-HSCT. ( info)
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