Cases reported "Musculoskeletal Diseases"

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1/109. Caring for survivors of torture in an urban, municipal hospital.

    survivors of torture can present with multiple health consequences, both physical and psychological, which can persist even years after the abuse. The authors developed a multidisciplinary program in the primary care medical clinic of an urban municipal hospital in new york city serving an ethnically diverse population to provide multidisciplinary care to survivors of torture and their families. ( info)

2/109. A novel method for locomotion training.

    This article describes a novel therapeutic system for locomotion training and learning for patients with a wide range of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. The technique embraces the notion that locomotion therapy should be goal oriented and task specific. The task specificity includes a partial weight-bearing device that permits the posture/equilibrium, movement, and weight-bearing components of gait function to operate concurrently, even in patients with serious deficits. In addition, it allows interaction with therapists and others to facilitate locomotion control, particularly during the early stages of gait therapy. Neurobiological bases for this technique and early clinical results are discussed, and two case studies of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are presented. Although well-designed efficacy studies are needed, clearly this therapeutic approach to locomotor disorders among TBI patients meets the various criteria for recovery of gait function established in this article. ( info)

3/109. Musculoskeletal manifestations of osteomalacia: report of 26 cases and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to describe the musculoskeletal manifestations in a selected population of 26 patients with biopsy-proven osteomalacia (OM) and provide a literature update. methods: The 26 patients with biopsy-proven OM were selected from a total number of 79 patients who underwent anterior iliac crest biopsy. The diagnosis of OM was confirmed by the presence of an osteoid volume greater than 10%, osteoid width greater than 15 microm, and delayed mineralization assessed by double-tetracycline labeling. RESULTS: OM was caused by intestinal malabsorption in 13 patients, whereas six other patients presented with hypophosphatemia of different causes. Five elderly patients presented with hypovitaminosis D, and in two patients the OM was part of renal osteodystrophy. Twenty-three patients presented with bone pain and diffuse demineralization, whereas three other patients had normal or increased bone density. Characteristic pseudofractures were seen in only seven patients. Six of the 23 patients with diffuse demineralization had an "osteoporotic-like pattern" without pseudofractures. Prominent articular manifestations were seen in seven patients, including a rheumatoid arthritis-like picture in three, osteogenic synovitis in three, and ankylosing spondylitis-like in one. Two other patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of possible metastatic bone disease attributable to polyostotic areas of increased radio nuclide uptake caused by pseudofractures. Six patients also had proximal myopathy, two elderly patients were diagnosed as having polymalgia rheumatica, and two young patients were diagnosed as having fibromyalgia. One of the patients who presented with increased bone density was misdiagnosed as possible fluorosis. CONCLUSION: OM is usually neglected when compared with other metabolic bone diseases and may present with a variety of clinical and radiographic manifestations mimicking other musculoskeletal disorders. ( info)

4/109. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: a cause of musculoskeletal sepsis in children.

    Between August 1996 and August 1997, 130 children were admitted to our pediatric orthopaedic unit with Staphylococcus aureus musculoskeletal infection. Twenty-six of the 130 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin, an incidence of 20%. All but one of the infections, a femoral fixator-pin infection, were community-acquired. Twenty-two of the infections were superficial; however, there were four cases of deep musculoskeletal sepsis due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In areas where methicillin-resistant S. aureus is prevalent in the community, methicillin resistance should be considered in any overwhelming staphylococcal infection not responding to conventional antibiotics despite adequate surgical debridement. ( info)

5/109. MR imaging of a hemorrhagic and granulomatous cyst of the ligamentum flavum with pathologic correlation.

    cysts of the ligamentum flavum are uncommon causes of neurologic signs and symptoms and usually are seen in persons over 50 years of age. We report a case of an epidural cyst located in the ligamentum flavum, which contributed to spinal stenosis in a 30-year-old man. Radiologic features were similar to those of a synovial cyst, but synovium was not identified histologically. The imaging and pathologic features were unusual, including hemorrhage and a fibrohistiocytic reaction with giant cells. ( info)

6/109. Successful treatment with arsenic trioxide of a patient with ATRA-resistant relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    arsenic trioxide has recently been introduced as a promising new agent to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In the present study, arsenic trioxide was given intravenously for 42 days to a 56-year-old female patient suffering from chemotherapy/ATRA-resistant APL, with 43% APL blasts in the bone marrow and elevated D-dimers. During the first days of arsenic trioxide treatment a rapid decrease in the D-dimers was seen (normal values reached until day 7), together with a slight decrease in peripheral blood leukocytes. This initial coagulation response was followed by a second phase of hematological response (starting on days 15-20) characterized by leukocytosis, occurrence of myeloid progenitor cells in the peripheral blood, and a decrease in bone marrow blasts (<1% on days 28 and 36). Finally, the patient entered complete hematological and cytogenetic remission, although the PML-RAR alpha fusion product was still detectable by PCR. These data confirm the therapeutic value of arsenic trioxide in relapsed/resistant APL. ( info)

7/109. Acute liver failure associated with prolonged use of bromfenac leading to liver transplantation. The Acute liver failure Study Group.

    Bromfenac, a nonnarcotic analgesic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was associated with reversible, minor elevations in serum aminotransferase levels during clinical trials. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, laboratory, and histological features of 4 patients with severe bromfenac hepatotoxicity identified at 3 tertiary care centers participating in the US Acute liver failure Study Group. Bromfenac was administered for chronic musculoskeletal disorders to 4 women in therapeutic doses of 25 to 100 mg/d for a minimum of 90 days. All patients reported a prodrome of malaise and fatigue and presented with severe, symptomatic hepatocellular injury with associated hypoprothrombinemia. None of the subjects had underlying liver or kidney disease, and there was no evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction. Other identifiable causes of acute liver failure were uniformly excluded. Despite supportive measures, all the subjects developed progressive liver failure over 5 to 37 days, leading to emergency liver transplantation in 3 patients and death in 1 patient while awaiting transplantation. Extensive confluent parenchymal necrosis that appeared to begin in the central zones and was accompanied by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate was noted in all the livers examined. Nodular regeneration was seen in the 2 patients with a more protracted clinical course. Administration of therapeutic doses of bromfenac for greater than 90 days was associated with the development of acute liver failure leading to liver transplantation or death in 4 adult women. The poor outcomes observed in this series, coupled with the inability to identify individuals at risk for severe, idiosyncratic bromfenac hepatotoxicity, preclude further use of bromfenac in the medical community. ( info)

8/109. Pitfalls and delay in the diagnosis of Pancoast tumour presenting in orthopaedic units.

    Pancoast tumours present a difficult and peculiar problem. Their clinical manifestations may be extrapulmonary. The underlying lesion may be missed in patients presenting with predominantly orthopaedic symptoms. We present four consecutive cases, which were referred to our clinic and the diagnosis was made with mean delay of 18.5 months from the beginning of symptoms. ( info)

9/109. role of neurophysiologic evaluation in diagnosis.

    The electrodiagnostic evaluation assesses the integrity of the lower-motor-neuron unit (i.e., peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, and muscle). Sensory- and motor-nerve conduction studies measure compound action potentials from nerve or muscle and are useful for assessing possible axon loss and/or demyelination. Needle electromyography measures electrical activity directly from muscle and provides information about the integrity of the motor unit; it can be used to detect loss of axons (denervation) as well as reinnervation. The electrodiagnostic examination is a useful tool for first detecting abnormalities and then distinguishing problems that affect the peripheral nervous system. In evaluating the patient with extremity trauma, it can differentiate neurapraxia from axonal transection and can be helpful in following the clinical course. In patients with complex physical findings, it is a useful adjunct that can help discriminate motor neuron disease from polyneuropathy or myeloradiculopathy due to spondylosis. ( info)

10/109. Spontaneous rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon: a case report and literature review.

    Spontaneous rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is uncommon. This article presents a case report in which spontaneous rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon occurred secondary to a gouty tophaceous deposit within the tendon. This report adds to the list of pathological conditions that should be considered in closed spontaneous rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon. ( info)
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