Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/5. Acquired slow-channel syndrome.

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man with clinical and electrophysiological features of hereditary slow-channel syndrome (SCS) and antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR-Abs). He presented with weakness of shoulder and hand muscles. A supramaximal single stimulus to the motor nerves disclosed a double compound muscle action potential (CMAP). Repetitive stimulation of ulnar, suprascapular, and median nerves showed a CMAP decrement greater than 10%. The patient responded to pyridostigmine. This report confirms the importance of AChR-Ab titers in suspected cases of hereditary SCS because patients with positive AChR-Abs may have a better response to available treatments.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = motor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/5. E-box mutations in the RAPSN promoter region in eight cases with congenital myasthenic syndrome.

    Myogenic determination factors are basic helix-loop-helix proteins that govern specification and differentiation of muscle cells, and bind to the E-box consensus sequence CANNTG in promoter regions of muscle-specific genes. No E-box mutation has been reported to date. RAPSN encodes rapsyn, a 43 kDa postsynaptic peripheral membrane protein that clusters the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the motor endplate. Transcriptional regulation mechanisms of RAPSN have not been studied. We here report two novel E-box mutations in the RAPSN promoter region in eight congenital myasthenic syndrome patients. Patient 1 carries -27C-->G that changes an E-box at -27 to -22 from CAGCTG to GAGCTG. An allele harboring -27C-->G is not transcribed in patient's muscle. patients 2-8 are of Oriental Jewish stock of Iraqi or Iranian origin with facial malformations, and harbor -38A-->G that changes another E-box at -40 to -35 from CAACTG to CAGCTG, which does not affect the consensus CANNTG sequence. Haplotype analysis shows that -38A-->G arises from a common founder. For each mutation, position 1 represents the major transcriptional start site that we determine to be 172 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that -38A-->G gains, and -27C-->G looses, binding affinity for different components of nuclear extracts of C2C12 myotubes. Luciferase reporter assays show that both -38A-->G and -27C-->G attenuate reporter gene expression in C2C12 myotubes, and that -27C-->G additionally attenuates reporter gene expression in MyoD- or myogenin-transfected HEK cells. The -27C-->G mutation also markedly attenuates the enhancer activity of an E-box on an SV40 promoter. Impaired transcriptional activities of the RAPSN promoter region predict reduced rapsyn expression and endplate acetylcholine receptor deficiency.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = motor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/5. Congenital myasthenic syndrome: presentation, electrodiagnosis, and muscle biopsy.

    We report 10 children with congenital myasthenic syndromes diagnosed by clinical features, electrodiagnostic studies, and response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Age at diagnosis (mean = 4.4 years; range 0.2-10 years) correlated with age fatigue was recognized. Symptoms at presentation included mild gross motor development delay (7/10), speech articulation difficulty (5/10), and respiratory and feeding difficulties resulting in poor growth in 7 of 10 children. None of the five children with possible presynaptic abnormalities had decremental compound muscle action potential responses to 2 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation. Instead, electrodiagnostic studies showed a more than 100% increment of compound muscle action potential amplitude during 50 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation in two children and sustained compound muscle action potential decrement to 2 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation after depletion (10 Hz stimulation for 10 min) in four children. Muscle biopsies (n = 7) showed mild to severe variation in fiber size. Our experience suggests that many children with congenital myasthenic syndromes might be undiagnosed because of atypical presentation and because additional electrophysiologic studies are required.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = motor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/5. Clinical variability of CMS-EA (congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea) due to identical CHAT mutations in two infants.

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) result from mutations in various synapse-associated genes. Mutations in the choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene cause a presynaptic CMS associated with episodic apnea (CMS-EA). We present two unrelated Croatian children affected by CMS-EA. Beside other clinical findings characteristic for CMS, both patients manifested intermittent apneas since early infancy. Whereas the course of disease is mild in the female patient (patient 2), the male patient (patient 1) experienced recurrent and severe episodes of apnea despite adequate treatment with AChE-inhibitors and shows a global developmental delay with delayed myelination and signs of hypoxic-ischemic injury in brain imaging. Interestingly, sequencing of the CHAT gene revealed identical, compound heterozygous mutations S694C and T354M in both children. These findings are in line with a remarkable clinical heterogeneity observed in patients with CHAT mutations and emphasize the potential role of apneic crises for the development of secondary hypoxic brain damage and psychomotor retardation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = motor
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/5. Novel congenital myasthenic syndromes associated with defects in quantal release.

    BACKGROUND: Most congenital myasthenic syndromes are caused by defects in postsynaptic or synaptic basal lamina-associated proteins; congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) associated with presynaptic defects are uncommon. Here, the authors describe clinical, electrophysiologic, and morphologic features of two novel and highly disabling CMSs, one determined by presynaptic and the other determined by combined presynaptic and postsynaptic defects. methods: Microelectrode, single channel patch clamp, immunocytochemical, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding, and quantitative electron microscopy studies of endplates were performed. Candidate genes were directly sequenced. RESULTS: Patient 1, a 7-year-old boy, had severe myasthenic symptoms since infancy. Patient 2, a 48-year-old man, had delayed motor milestones and became progressively weaker after age 2 years. Both used wheelchairs and had a 30-50% EMG decrement on 2-Hz stimulation. Evoked quantal release was reduced to approximately 25% of normal in both. In Patient 2, the synaptic response to acetylcholine was further compromised by degeneration of the junctional folds with concomitant loss of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). A search for mutations in components of the synaptic vesicle release complex and in other candidate proteins failed to identify the molecular basis of the two syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: Combined clinical, morphologic, and in vitro electrophysiologic findings define two novel congenital myasthenic syndromes. The molecular basis of these syndromes awaits discovery.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = motor
(Clic here for more details about this article)


Leave a message about 'Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.