Cases reported "Mycobacterium Infections"

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1/16. Surgery for cervicofacial nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis in children: an update.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess optimal surgical treatment with excision or curettage techniques in children with cervicofacial nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) adenitis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary university-based pediatric referral center. patients: patients younger than 18 years diagnosed as having cervicofacial NTM adenitis by positive mycobacterial cultures or stains, or by histopathologic evaluation. INTERVENTIONS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis, surgical excision and/or curettage of head and neck lesions for treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of procedures per patient, complications, resolution of mass. RESULTS: A total of 32 surgical procedures were performed in 25 children with cervicofacial NTM adenitis (mean, 1.3 procedures per patient; range, 1-3): 19 excisional and 13 curettage procedures. The 14 children who had excision as an initial procedure required no additional surgery. Of 11 children who had curettage as an initial procedure, 6 (55%) required additional procedures. Three of these children had additional surgery as planned staged procedures. Excisional surgery after initial curettage (5 patients) was simplified by initial debridement and secondary healing. No complications of curettage were noted. Transient marginal mandibular nerve weakness was seen in 4 patients who had excision. Fourteen of 16 fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens were diagnostic for NTM adenitis. CONCLUSIONS: Cervicofacial NTM adenitis can be treated with excision or curettage. Excision remains the treatment of choice because of the high cure rate with a single procedure. We now consider curettage as a staged procedure for lesions in proximity to the facial nerve or with extensive skin necrosis, with initial curettage simplifying subsequent excision and wound closure. Preoperative counseling should include discussion of planned or unplanned revision surgery after curettage. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy allows early diagnosis of NTM adenitis.
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2/16. Isolated cutaneous response to granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor in fatal idiopathic disseminated bacillus-Calmette-Guerin infection.

    Severe disseminated bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection is very rare and has been regarded as idiopathic when no immunodeficiency is present. This entity seems to be due to several new types of inherited abnormalities in the pathways important in defence against Mycobacteria. Although improvement with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) has been reported in some patients, to our knowledge there are no reports on the effect of other cytokines in the treatment of these patients. We report here the clinical response to IFN-gamma and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment in a patient with idiopathic disseminated BCG infection who failed to respond to multiple antimycobacterial agents. The patient showed partial and transitory response to IFN-gamma, however, GM-CSF treatment led to rapid improvement of skin lesions within 2 weeks without any effect on the progression of the disease in the other organ systems. CONCLUSION: The response of idiopathic disseminated bacillus-Calmette-Guerin infection to granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor treatment was limited to cutaneous lesions. Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor may have acted to promote wound healing or the levels of this factor achieved in other affected organs may have been inadequate.
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3/16. skin and wound infection by rapidly growing mycobacteria: an unexpected complication of liposuction and liposculpture. The Venezuelan Collaborative Infectious and Tropical Diseases Study Group.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe 10 patients with skin and soft tissue infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic liposuction and liposculpture. DESIGN: Case series. SETTINGS: Eight private geographically separate surgical facilities from a single metropolitan area. patients: Eight patients with definite and 2 with presumptive cases of skin and soft tissue infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic surgery procedures during a 24-month period. Microorganisms were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds or fistulas in 8 cases and were identified as mycobacterium fortuitum (3 cases) and Mycobacterium abscessus (5 cases) by routine microbiologic techniques. Acid-fast bacilli were observed on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained smears in the 2 remaining cases, but these ultimately failed to grow. In 2 of the surgical units, no apparent environmental predisposing factors were identified after thorough microbiologic environmental investigation. Clinically, all patients exhibited signs of inflammation, microabscesses, and purulent wound drainage within 24 months of abdominal and/or thigh liposuction or homologous fat tissue injection. INTERVENTION: A combined therapeutic approach including surgical drainage, debridment, and prolonged (>3 months) treatment with combined antimicrobial agents including clarithromycin was used in all cases. RESULTS: Nine of 10 patients responded to the combined therapeutic approach, and no evidence of infection was present during at least 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first series of patients with rapidly growing mycobacterial infections to be described after liposuction and liposculpture. Rapidly growing mycobacteria should be included in the differential diagnosis of skin and soft tissue infection after cosmetic surgery.
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ranking = 844.141991546
keywords = wound infection, wound
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4/16. Mycobacterium goodii infections associated with surgical implants at colorado hospital.

    From February to October 2003, Mycobacterium goodii wound infections were identified among three patients who received surgical implants at a colorado hospital. This report summarizes the investigation of the first reported nosocomial outbreak of M. goodii. Increased awareness is needed about the potential for nontuberculous mycobacteria to cause postoperative wound infections.
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5/16. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and review of the literature in thailand.

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a variety of diseases. Thirty isolates of the pathogenic RGM were recovered from patients who attended King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during 1997 and 2003. There were 16 isolates of mycobacterium chelonae, ten isolates of M. fortuitum and four isolates of M. abscessus. Clinical data was available in only nine patients (five males and four females) including six M. chelonae, two M. abscessus, and one M. fortuitum. The mean age was 37 years (range: 13-62 years). The associated conditions were present in five patients including two diabetes, one hiv infection, one pregnancy, one SLE and one chronic renal failure. A wide spectrum of clinical features was observed. These included two chronic pulmonary infections, two post-traumatic wound infections, two disseminated infections, one lymphadenitis, one keratitis and respiratory colonization. AFB staining was positive in six patients (66.67%). The MIC of one M. chelonae and one M. abscessus were determined by Epsilon test. For M. chelonae, the MIC of clarithromycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and imipenem were 0.25, 2.0, 1.00, > 64, and 0.54 microg/ml, respectively. For M. abscessus, the MIC of clarithromycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole were 0.016, 0.016, 0.038, > 16 and 0.002 microg/ml, respectively. Six of eight patients (75%) were initially treated with four first-line antituberculous drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) before obtaining the culture result. Of these, three patients with pulmonary and disseminated infections improved after a prolonged course of these combinations. The patients improved after switching to specific anti-RGM antibiotics. One patient died after 10 months of therapy of four anti-tuberculous drugs. One patient with post-traumatic wound infection was cured with surgical debridement and dicloxacillin. One patient improved after treatment as acute bronchitis with oral amoxicillin. An extensive review of the literature of RGM infections in thailand is also presented.
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6/16. Description of Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov., a mycobacterium fortuitum group organism isolated from a posttraumatic osteitis inflammation.

    A nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacterium was isolated from wound liquid outflow, bone tissue biopsy, and excised skin tissue from a 31-year-old woman who suffered an accidental open right tibia fracture and prolonged stay in a river. The three isolates grew in 3 days at 24 to 37 degrees C. 16S rRNA sequence analyses over 1,483 bp showed that they were identical and shared 99.7% (4-bp difference) sequence similarity with that of Mycobacterium porcinum, the most closely related species. Partial rpoB (723 bp) sequence analyses showed that the isolates shared 97.0% sequence similarity with that of M. porcinum. Further polyphasic approaches, including biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility analyses, and hsp65, sodA, and recA gene sequence analysis, as well as % G C determination and cell wall fatty acid composition analysis supported the evidence that these isolates were representative of a new species. Phylogenetic analyses showed the close relationship with M. porcinum in the mycobacterium fortuitum group. The isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics and exhibited evidence for penicillinase activity, in contrast to M. porcinum. We propose the name Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov. for this new species associated with posttraumatic osteitis. The type strain is D16(T) (equivalent to CIP 108544(T) and CCUG 50187(T)).
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7/16. Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in sickle cell anemia patients.

    nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in nature and have been implicated in skin/soft-tissue, pulmonary, middle ear, bone, and surgical/traumatic wound infections. Disseminated disease occurs infrequently and almost exclusively in the immunocompromised. We describe the first 2 reported cases of disseminated mycobacterium fortuitum infection in teenagers with sickle hemoglobinopathy. Both had central venous catheters (CVCs), frequent admissions for vaso-occlusive painful episode and received hydroxyurea. Diagnosis was confirmed by multiple positive blood cultures and pulmonary dissemination occurred in both. Both had successful treatment after CVC removal and combination drug therapy. Positive cultures persisted in 1 patient due to drug resistance emphasizing the need for accurate susceptibility data. NTM infection should be added to the list of pathogens in sickle cell patients with CVCs and fever. Investigation for disseminated disease should be undertaken based on clinical signs and symptoms. Although some routine blood culture systems can identify NTM, specific mycobacterial blood culture is optimal. Removal of involved CVCs is essential and treatment of NTM must be guided by susceptibilities. As dissemination almost always occurs in those with impaired cellular immunity, human immunodeficiency virus testing should be performed. hydroxyurea may be a risk factor for dissemination and needs further evaluation.
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ranking = 210.5354978865
keywords = wound infection, wound
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8/16. aortitis caused by mycobacterium fortuitum.

    aortic valve replacement was complicated by sternal wound infection with mycobacterium fortuitum. The wound was treated with debridement and antibiotic therapy. Five months later the patient developed fever, and blood cultures yielded M fortuitum. At surgery, aortitis with pseudo-aneurysm formation was encountered. mycobacterium fortuitum grew from the aortic lesion. This is the first report of M fortuitum causing aortitis, although this organism is known to infect sternal wounds and mediastinum. Mediastinal infection can progress despite a normal wound appearance. Its manifestations may be delayed and may include infections of the aorta as well as of the sternum and mediastinum.
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ranking = 213.5354978865
keywords = wound infection, wound
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9/16. Extragenital mycoplasma hominis infections in adults.

    PURPOSE: To heighten awareness of the role of mycoplasma hominis as an extragenital pathogen in adults. patients AND methods AND RESULTS: patients ranged in age from 14 to 76 years. Thirteen patients were immunosuppressed, including nine organ transplant recipients; three were receiving steroids, and two had an underlying malignancy. The remainder were immunocompetent. Thirteen patients had prior surgery at or near the site of infection. M. hominis was isolated from normally sterile sites such as blood or cerebrospinal, pleural, abdominal and joint fluids, and bone. Non-sterile sites of isolation included surgical wounds and pulmonary secretions. The organism was detected in anaerobic cultures of clinical specimens sent to the laboratory for routine bacteriologic culture. Gram stains of fluids or wound drainage revealed neutrophils but no bacteria. Anti-mycoplasmal therapy was effective in eradicating the organism in 13 of 15 patients who were treated. Of those in whom treatment failed, one patient had an antibiotic-resistant isolate and the other had M. hominis isolated from the lung at postmortem after just 2 days of therapy. CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that significant infections due to M. hominis, although uncommon, are not rare, and methods to isolate and identify this organism should be available for general adult medical and surgical populations.
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10/16. mycobacterium marinum flexor tenosynovitis.

    Four culture-positive cases of flexor tenosynovitis of the hand caused by mycobacterium marinum are reported. The organisms were cultured at 32 degrees. All patients were treated with a combination of flexor tenosynovectomy and antimycobacterial treatment with ethambutol and rifampin. The length of antimycobacterial treatment ranged from nine to 22 months. All four patients responded to treatment with cessation of signs of infection, increased range of motion, and complete wound healing.
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