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1/43. Infection by rhodococcus equi in a patient with AIDS: histological appearance mimicking Whipple's disease and mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection.

    rhodococcus equi pneumonia with systemic dissemination is being reported increasingly in immunocompromised patients. This is the first case report of disseminated R equi infection with biopsy documented involvement of the large intestine. The patient was a 46 year old male with AIDS who was diagnosed with cavitating pneumonia involving the left lower lobe. R equi was isolated in culture from the blood and lung biopsies. Subsequently, the patient developed anaemia, diarrhoea, and occult blood in the stool. colonoscopy revealed several colonic polyps. Histological examination of the colon biopsies showed extensive submucosal histiocytic infiltration with numerous Gram positive coccobacilli and PAS positive material in the histiocytes. Electron microscopy showed variably shaped intrahistiocytic organisms which were morphologically consistent with R equi in the specimen. Disseminated R equi infection may involve the lower gastrointestinal tract and produce inflammatory polyps with foamy macrophages which histologically resemble those seen in Whipple's disease and mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection.
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2/43. coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in the same lesions in the small bowel and bone marrow of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who complained of abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. The duodenal mucosa and bone marrow biopsy specimens showed numerous foamy macrophages packed with two forms of microorganisms that were identified histologically and ultrastructurally as Leishmania and Mycobacterium species. Visceral leishmaniasis is rarely suspected in patients residing in nonendemic countries including the united states. It should be included in the differential diagnosis for opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An appropriate travel history is important. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case showing coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium avium-intracelluulare in the same lesion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 1.0060380300173
keywords = macrophage, bone
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3/43. listeria monocytogenes and recurrent mycobacterial infections in a child with complete interferon-gamma-receptor (IFNgammaR1) deficiency: mutational analysis and evaluation of therapeutic options.

    We describe the history of a girl with interferon-gamma-receptor (IFNgammaR1) deficiency and studies performed to identify the molecular and clinical characteristics of this recently discovered disorder. This is the first report of a child from Northern europe with IFNgammaR1 deficiency. The patient, now 7 years old, first presented with swelling and reddening at the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination site, swelling of lymph nodes, hepatomegaly, and an unusually severe varicella rash at the age of 4 months. At that time, she was diagnosed with BCG histiocytosis without typical granuloma formation and was treated with antituberculous agents. During the clinical course of her illness, several different types of atypical mycobacteria and (for the first time in an IFNgammaR1-deficient patient) listeria monocytogenes were detected. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the patient's monocytes could not bind a monoclonal antibody specific for the IFNgamma-receptor. Our analysis of mRNA derived from the alpha-chain (IFNgammaR1) gene of this receptor revealed deletions of 173 bp and 4 bp in cDNA sequences originating from individual alleles. The 173 bp deletion was located between nucleotide positions 200 and 372, exactly matching those of exon 3, and the 4 bp deletion was located between nucleotide positions 561 and 564 of the coding region of the cDNA. Analysis of genomic dna revealed the presence of a G to T transition at the 5'end of the splice consensus sequence of intron 3, which explains the absence of exon 3. The other allele carried the 4-base-pair deletion (ACTC) at nucleotide positions 15-18 of exon 5. Twelve months after an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, the patient had clinically improved.
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keywords = bone
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4/43. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor of the brain: a case report and review of the literature.

    Spindle cell pseudotumors found in the skin, lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, lungs, and retroperitoneum have been reported recently in immunosuppressed patients, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The authors report a similar lesion limited to the brain in a 38-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative man receiving steroid therapy for treatment of sarcoidosis. Histopathologically the lesions were composed of spindle and epithelioid histiocytes, small foci of necrosis, and numerous acid-fast bacilli. The acid-fast bacilli were determined by culture and polymerase chain reaction to be Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. Because of the uncommon histologic appearance of this lesion and the potential for treatment if recognized, mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions in the brain in immunosuppressed patients.
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keywords = bone
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5/43. Familial pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    We report two Japanese families affected by pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, involving an older brother and younger sister in one family and two brothers in the second family. We investigated whether defects in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) underlay susceptibility to MAC in these cases. All of the patients had computed tomographic findings of peripheral nodules and bronchiectasis. pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns of mycobacterial genomic dna restriction fragments revealed that none of the MAC strains isolated from the patients was epidemiologically related to any of the others. Direct sequencing of the complementary dna of the patients' NRAMP1 revealed a nonconservative missense mutation at codon 419 in one patient, which was heterozygous and was not seen in his affected sibling. No variations similar to those found in mice that show susceptibility to MAC were found. The results suggest an underlying genetic defect in host defense rather than exposure to an unusually virulent strain of MAC as the pathogenetic factor in MAC disease; however, alterations in the coding region of NRAMP1 do not appear to explain the susceptibility to MAC.
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6/43. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of a bone marrow isolate from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient discloses polyclonal infection with two Mycobacterium avium strains.

    Polyclonal infection by Mycobacterium avium was detected by hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) in a bone marrow isolate from an AIDS patient. Two M. avium strains, differing in colony morphology, PRA HaeIII digestion pattern, insertion element (IS) 1245 amplification, and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprints with IS1245 and IS1311 probes, were isolated.
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ranking = 0.015095075043373
keywords = bone
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7/43. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor of the appendix vermiformis in a patient with aids.

    Mycobacterial pseudotumor (MP) is a rare pathologic presentation of both mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease, hitherto reported to occur only in immunosuppressed patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection. This lesion shares close pathologic resemblance to certain mesenchymal neoplasms, particularly Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), from which it must be properly differentiated due to distinct prognosis and therapy. We report a case of MP obliterating the lumen of the appendix vermiformis in a 34-year-old patient who died of complications of AIDS at our hospital in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 24 cases of MP (including our patient) have been described in the literature. MP has been found especially in lymph nodes, but extranodal lesions have been described in the skin, spleen, lung, bone marrow, brain and, in our patient, the appendix vermiformis. We offer a review of the other 23 published case reports of MP in both hiv-infected and uninfected patients and discuss the pathologic features that differentiate MP from KS.
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ranking = 0.0030190150086746
keywords = bone
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8/43. Multifocal osteomyelitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with a genetic defect of the interferon-gamma receptor.

    We describe three patients with multifocal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium avium and a family history of one or more first degree family members diagnosed with various clinical presentations of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. There was a significant delay in the diagnosis and they had a protracted course of their illness, which responded only slowly to prolonged multi-drug treatment. In one patient, additional treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was necessary. macrophages of these patients had decreased in vitro responsiveness to IFN-gamma. Genomic sequencing revealed that these patients and their affected family members were heterozygous for a previously described dominant negative mutation in the gene encoding the IFN-gamma binding receptor-1 chain. The clinical presentations of the infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria in these families, with spread limited to skin, bone and lymph nodes, is discussed in the light of the immune mechanisms that are responsible for the clearance of otherwise poorly pathogenic environmental mycobacteria.
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ranking = 0.0030190150086746
keywords = bone
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9/43. Characterization of a Mycobacterium intracellulare variant strain by molecular techniques.

    This paper describes a Mycobacterium intracellulare variant strain causing an unusual infection. Several isolates obtained from an immunocompromised patient were identified as members of the mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) by the commercial AccuProbe system and biochemical standard identification. Further molecular approaches were undertaken for a more accurate characterization of the bacteria. Up to seven different genomic sequences were analyzed, ranging from conserved mycobacterial genes such as 16S ribosomal dna to MAC-specific genes such as mig (macrophage-induced gene). The results obtained identify the isolates as a variant of M. intracellulare, an example of the internal variability described for members of the MAC, particularly within that species. The application of other molecular approaches is recommended for more accurate identification of bacteria described as MAC members.
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keywords = macrophage
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10/43. Bone scintigraphy in mycobacterium avium osteomyelitis: a case report.

    A 30-year-old woman who had a destructive mycobacterium avium complex infection in the left inguinal fossa affecting the pubic bone underwent three-phase bone scanning to identify other possibly affected sites. Multiple skeletal lesions were seen scattered throughout the vertebral column, sternum, and pelvis. This case is presented to describe a rare extensive metastatic M. avium complex infection in an immunocompromised patient.
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ranking = 0.0060380300173493
keywords = bone
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