Cases reported "Mycoses"

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1/1155. Laryngeal pathology in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced a growing population of patients who, because of their associated immune system compromise, are prone to opportunistic infections and neoplastic diseases. The larynx, with its relatively inaccessible yet critical anatomic location, is a site in which these processes can produce clinical dilemmas, with respect to diagnosis as well as to therapy. By presenting 4 cases involving unusual laryngeal problems in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), we emphasize these inherent diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Otolaryngologists must be familiar with the many diagnostic possibilities and therapeutic alternatives when hiv-infected patients present with laryngeal complaints. ( info)

2/1155. Ophthalmic manifestations of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    PURPOSE: To highlight allergic fungal sinusitis as a cause of ophthalmic and sinus problems by identifying the profile of the patient with allergic fungal sinusitis and presenting a successful treatment approach. methods: Six consecutive cases of patients with ophthalmic manifestations of allergic fungal sinusitis were reviewed. Ophthalmic findings, sinus involvement, mycology, immune response, imaging studies, and treatment were examined. The characteristics of this patient group with ophthalmic manifestations of allergic fungal sinusitis were compared with those of the general group of patients with allergic fungal sinusitis. RESULTS: All six patients had proptosis. One had symptomatic diplopia and one had visual loss. Imaging studies, fungal characterization, and immune profiles were similar to the reported allergic fungal sinusitis population. After treatment there was no recurrence of ophthalmic or sinus symptoms at a mean follow-up of 34 months (range, 8 to 48 months). There were no complications of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires suspicion on the part of the ophthalmologist. Proptosis is the most common ophthalmic sign. Differentiation from invasive forms of fungal sinus disease is crucial, because systemic antifungal medication and extensive surgical tissue debridement are not required in allergic fungal sinusitis. Treatment consists of extirpation of the allergic mucin and fungus, sinus aeration, and systemic and topical corticosteroids. ( info)

3/1155. Fatal disseminated trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature.

    trichoderma longibrachiatum was recovered from stool surveillance cultures and a perirectal ulcer biopsy specimen from a 29-year-old male who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The amphotericin b (2.0 microgram/ml) and itraconazole (1.0 microgram/ml) MICs for the organism were elevated. Therapy with these agents was unsuccessful, and the patient died on day 58 posttransplantation. At autopsy, histologic sections from the lungs, liver, brain, and intestinal wall showed infiltration by branching septate hyphae. Cultures were positive for trichoderma longibrachiatum. While trichoderma species have been recognized to be pathogenic in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts with increasing frequency, this is the first report of probable acquisition through the gastrointestinal tract. Salient features regarding the identification of molds in the trichoderma longibrachiatum species aggregate are presented. ( info)

4/1155. fusarium infections in patients with severe aplastic anemia: review and implications for management.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of severe fungal infections, such as fusarium infections, in patients with aplastic anemia is directly related to the recovery of bone marrow functions. In this study, in vitro anti-fusarium activity of granulocytes was investigated, the case of disseminated infection in a child with very severe aplastic anemia is reported, and implications for management of such infective complications are discussed. DESIGN AND methods: The in vitro efficiency of PMNL from three untreated, normal blood donors and from two G-CSF-treated WBC donors in contrasting the growth of the fusarium sp strain isolated from the patient we present was measured by a 3H-glucose uptake inhibition assay and confirmed by microscopic examination. RESULTS: Basic growth inhibitory activity of unstimulated PMNL on fusarium cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of GM-CSF in all three blood donors tested. In one of the two G-CSF-treated donors, in vitro efficiency of PMNL in contrasting the growth of the fungus increased notably after G-CSF treatment. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with very severe aplastic anemia unresponsive to conventional immunosuppressant therapy who developed a disseminated fusarium infection. The child initially responded to liposomal amphotericin b and granulocyte transfusions from G-CSF stimulated donors. Subsequently she was given a cord blood stem cell transplantation but died of disseminated infection. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Including the present case, there are only ten reports of invasive infections caused by the genus fusarium in aplastic anemia patients and only two of the patients survived. in vitro data seem to suggest that in vivo treatment with rh-G-CSF could have a stimulatory effect on the anti-fusarium activity of neutrophils. Despite the efficacy of granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors in the temporary control of fusarium infection, treatment of the underlying hematologic disease is required to cure the infection in patients with severe aplastic anemia. Granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors while awaiting bone marrow recovery following the blood stem cell transplant should be considered. ( info)

5/1155. Allergic fungal sinusitis. A report of two cases with diagnosis by intraoperative aspiration cytology.

    BACKGROUND: Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a newly recognized form of sinusitis characterized by opacification of the paranasal sinuses by "allergic mucin" (AM) admixed with scattered fungal organisms. AM consists of necrotic, or partially necrotic, eosinophils and Charcot-Leyden crystals suspended in lakes of laminated, mucinous material. AFS is characterized by the absence of bone or soft tissue invasion, purulent exudate or granulomatous inflammation. Clinically, it is important to differentiate AFS from both acute invasive fungal sinusitis and noninvasive mycetoma because the three diseases are treated with different modalities and have different prognoses. Although the radiologic features of AFS are often characteristic, occasionally it may be difficult to exclude neoplasia. CASES: Two cases of AFS, in which intraoperative diagnosis was made on the basis of the presence of both AM and fungal organisms, are reported. CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of AFS can be made from intraoperative sinus aspirates from the presence of AM and fungal elements. AM and fungi provide presumptive evidence for a noninvasive, allergic fungal disease and can help reassure clinicians intraoperatively and guide clinical management. ( info)

6/1155. Rapid and definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases using peripheral blood smears.

    A timely diagnosis is essential in the management of septicemia and septic shock. Three patients are described, all of whom presented with fever and one of whom was hypotensive at the time of admission. In each patient, rapid diagnosis of the cause of fever was possible because microorganisms were identified on a peripheral blood smear obtained at the time of admission. This identification permitted prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. In addition, a literature review of use of peripheral blood smears in the diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections is provided. ( info)

7/1155. Unusual pulmonary manifestations of disseminated penicillium marneffei infection in three AIDS patients.

    penicillium marneffei is a rare fungal pathogen which can cause human infections in people predominantly living in South-east asia and the southern portion of china. We report three cases of systemic P. marneffei infection in patients infected with hiv who lived in or had travelled to endemic areas. The clinical manifestation includes high fever, chills, weight loss, general malaise, chronic cough, haemoptysis, multiple skin lesions, abnormal liver function, etc. Chest X-ray showed single or multiple cavitary lesions with smooth or irregular thin wall. P. marneffei is cultured from blood, sputum, skin biopsy, sono-guide aspiration and bronchoscopic biopsy. After antifungal therapy with intravenous amphotericin b or oral fluconazole, skin lesions resolved completely within 2 weeks and cavitary lesions in the lungs changed to chronic fibrotic and interstitial processes after several months to a few years later. Our two cases had been treated as either pulmonary tuberculosis or suspected malignancy. A definite diagnosis and early treatment are important because this fungal infection is a marker of AIDS in South-east asia. ( info)

8/1155. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium rubrigenum in an immunosuppressed patient.

    BACKGROUND: phaeohyphomycosis refers to infection by dematiaceous fungi with pigmented hyphae or yeast-like cells in the tissue. In humans, this disease is usually considered to be an opportunistic infection. The causal agents of phaeohyphomycosis include numerous species belonging to different genera and they are increasing as a result of the development of intensive medical therapy. observation: We report the case of a 61-year-old Japanese female under corticosteroid treatment for malignant rheumatoid arthritis. An asymptomatic subcutaneous tumor developed on the back of her left foot. Histological examination of the excised material revealed mixed cell granuloma (H&E) and the presence of branched hyphal elements (periodic acid-Schiff). A fungus grown in pure culture was identified as Phaeoacremonium rubrigenum. CONCLUSION: The hyphomycete genus, Phaeoacremonium, was proposed in 1996 by Crous et al. Three species belonging to this genus have been isolated from clinical specimens: P. inflatipes, from a human toenail, human synovial fluid and human mycetoma of the foot, P. parasiticum, from a subcutaneous lesion on a kidney transplant patient and several other sources, and P. rubrigenum, from a human patient with pneumonia. To our knowledge, however, this is the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium rubrigenum. ( info)

9/1155. rhodotorula sp. infection in corneal interface following lamellar keratoplasty--a case report.

    PURPOSE: To report an unusual organism causing infection following lamellar keratoplasty. METHOD: Case report. RESULT: Both gram stain smear and culture from the interlamellar bed revealed rhodotorula sp., a red yeast as a causative agent. CONCLUSION: rhodotorula sp. can cause corneal lamellar graft infection. ( info)

10/1155. rhodotorula rubra fungaemia in an immunosuppressed patient.

    We report the case of a patient who, following surgical removal of an extensive tumour of the bowel, developed fungaemia. The yeast was isolated from repeated blood and urine cultures and identified as rhodotorula rubra on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic features. Following treatment with amphotericin b, the patient's condition improved and the cultures became sterile. ( info)
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