Cases reported "Myelitis"

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1/222. Radiculomyelitis following acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis.

    The clinical manifestations and natural history of radiculomyelitis following a newly reported disease--acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC)--have been studied in 33 patients in taiwan, and the following observations made: All the patients in this series were adults at ages ranging from 21 to 55 years; the salient initial neurological manifestations were radicular pains and acute flaccid paralysis which developed from five to thirty-seven days after the onset of AHC. In some patients, signs and symptoms indicating involvement of the meninges, cranial nerves and the white matter of the cord were observed; motor paralysis was the most striking feature during the whole clinical course; it consisted of flaccid asymmetrical weakness in one or more limbs, usually being more severe in the lower limbs than in the upper, and often more proximal than distal. Atrophy in the severely affected muscles usually became apparent in the second or third week of the weakness; the prognosis regarding the return of function in the affected muscles was dependent on the severity of the involvement. Permanent incapacitation due to paralysis and muscular atrophy in the affected proximal muscles of lower limbs was the main sequel in severe cases. The pattern and prognosis of flaccid motor paralysis were reminiscent of acute poliomyelitis in which the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord are mainly involved. Pleocytosis ranging from 11 to 270 per mm3 was noted in the majority of the patients when the cerebrospinal fluid was examined within the first three weeks from the onset of neurological symptoms; the total protein level was raised invariably from the second week onwards in all specimens, and remained so throughout the subsequent course as long as the seventh week or later. Tissue culture neutralization tests were performed on the sera from 9 patients; significant rises in the antibody titres (greater than or equal to 1:16) to AHC virus antigens were found in 8 cases, and in 2 of them a fourfold rise in the paired sera was noted. The differentiation of this syndrome from poliomyelitis and from guillain-barre syndrome, the relative freedom of children from neurological complications of AHC and the aetiological relationship of AHC virus to the syndrome have been discussed. It is concluded that this unusual neurological syndrome is caused by the neurovirulent properties of the AHC virus. ( info)

2/222. spinal cord involvement in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and literature review.

    Transverse myelitis is a rare but serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe the youngest patient with transverse myelitis ever recorded in SLE. Clinical improvement was observed after prednisone and cyclophosphamide therapy. The English language literature from 1966 to the present on the subject are reviewed. ( info)

3/222. MRI of enterovirus 71 myelitis with monoplegia.

    We report two boys diagnosed as having herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease complicated by monoplegia during the outbreak enterovirus infection in taiwan in 1998. enterovirus 71 was identified in the stool and throat swab; neither polio nor Coxsackie viruses was identified. MRI showed unilateral lesions in the anterior horns of the spinal cord at T11-12 and C2-5. Although the MRI findings and sites of these lesions were similar to those of poliovirus-associated poliomyelitis, the virological data indicated that these boys were infected with enterovirus type 71. ( info)

4/222. Post-radiotherapy myelitis observed in an AIDS patient with a meningioma: case report and review of the literature.

    radiation myelitis is an uncommon but serious complication of radiation therapy. Although the definitive threshold to cause myelitis is unknown, it is believed that less than 50 Gy when given in 25 or more fractions is highly unlikely to cause myelopathy. This report describes a case of myelitis within the radiotherapy portal in an hiv infected patient who received radiation therapy for an atypical meningioma located in the cervical spine. A complete resolution of the meningioma was also noted in this case. The possible contributing roles of hiv infection and concomitant administration of antiviral drugs are discussed. ( info)

5/222. Tuberculous radiculomyelitis complicating tuberculous meningitis: case report and review.

    Tuberculous radiculomyelitis (TBRM) is a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), which has been reported rarely in the modern medical literature. We describe a case of TBRM that developed in an human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patient, despite prompt antituberculous treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second case of TBRM reported in an hiv-infected patient. We also review 74 previously reported cases of TBRM. TBRM develops at various periods after TBM, even in adequately treated patients after sterilization of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The most common symptoms are subacute paraparesis, radicular pain, bladder disturbance, and subsequent paralysis. CSF evaluation usually shows an active inflammatory response with a very high protein level. MRI and CT scan are critical for diagnosis, revealing loculation and obliteration of the subarachnoid space along with linear intradural enhancement. As in other forms of paradoxical reactions to antituberculous treatment, there is evidence that steroid treatment might have a beneficial effect. ( info)

6/222. Poliomyelitic-like illness in central European encephalitis.

    Central European encephalitis (CEE) may be accompanied by myeloradiculitic symptoms in up to 5% of patients. The authors report six patients with a myelitic form of CEE mimicking acute poliomyelitis with bulbar and arm predominance and a poor prognosis. Three patients died. Of the survivors, only one can perform most activities of daily living, but still needs assisted ventilation at night. autopsy in one patient showed severe cervicothoracic inflammation with changes almost exclusively in anterior horn cells and roots, as typically seen in poliomyelitis. ( info)

7/222. MRI of radiation myelitis: a report of a case treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

    radiation therapy is commonly applied as a primary or adjuvant therapy for malignancies. One of the major complications following radiation therapy is the necrosis of the otherwise normal surrounding soft tissues and/or bone. Post-radiation myelopathy rarely occurs when the spinal cord is included within the radiation field, in cases of high total radiation doses or for high radiation doses per fractionation. Up until the present, no tolerance dose for the spinal cord has accurately been defined and no treatment has proved satisfactory. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is already currently used as adjuvant treatment for osteoradionecrosis and for radionecrosis of soft tissues with satisfactory results, whereas results for the treatment of post-attinic myelitis were contradictory. The aim of our report is to describe a case of radiation myelitis with a progressive improvement in the clinicoradiologic picture following hyperbaric oxygen treatment. ( info)

8/222. Late sequelae of radiation therapy in cancer of the head and neck with particular reference to the nasopharynx.

    Sequlae of radiation therapy may be late in occurring and varied in their manifestations. Although some are untreatable and progressive, the risk of development of some other sequelae can be minimized by careful application of radiotherapy or by ancillary measures, such as dental decay prophylaxis. Some of the serious sequelae secondary to radiation therapy of the nasopharynx have been summarized. These include radiation myelitis, paralysis of the cranial nerves, stricture of the pharynx, radiation-induced cancer, and necrosis with fatal hemorrhage. ( info)

9/222. Acute-onset nontraumatic paraplegia in childhood: fibrocartilaginous embolism or acute myelitis?

    Fibrocartilaginous embolus causing acute spinal cord infarction is a rare cause of acute-onset paraplegia or quadriplegia. Few cases of survivors have been reported in the neurosurgical literature, with most reports involving postmortem or biopsy findings. There is little information on MRI findings in such patients. We present the youngest patient ever reported, and discuss the important differences between fibrocartilaginous embolus and acute myelitis of childhood. A 6-year-old girl with a history of back pain presented with sudden-onset nontraumatic paraplegia, with a clinical anterior spinal artery syndrome. Initial MRI scan revealed intervertebral disc disease at L1-2 and an incidental thoracic syrinx, but no cause for her acute-onset paraplegia was identified. cerebrospinal fluid and other investigations were all negative. Sequential MRI scans revealed development of spinal cord expansion from T10 to the conus medullaris, with increased cord signal in the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. The intervertebral disc disease was unchanged. The imaging and clinical findings were caused by fibrocartilaginous embolus, which meant there was no need for spinal cord biopsy. The report describes the clinical and imaging criteria for diagnosis of fibrocartilaginous embolus, highlighting the case for avoiding an unnecessary biopsy. The clinical pattern in the paediatric group is discussed, with features differentiating it from acute myelitis of childhood. ( info)

10/222. Dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus with subsequent transverse myelitis in a parturient.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of transverse myelitis following inadvertent dural puncture and iatrogenic pneumocephalus and any possible causal relationship is explored. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 32-yr-old primigravida developed a severe headache associated with pneumocephalus following accidental dural puncture when the loss of resistance to air technique was used to locate the epidural space. She was treated with oxygen 100% to promote resorption of the air and the headache resolved. One month later she developed a sensory disturbance in her feet. Neurological examination revealed reduced sensation to cold and pain to ankle level and bilateral suppressed knee and ankle reflexes but was otherwise normal. A spinal cord lesion (epidural abscess/hematoma) was excluded with an emergency T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the lumbar spine. Over the next 48 hr the sensory disturbance worsened to involve her legs and waist. Examination revealed a sensory loss to waist level, reduced joint position sense and vibration sense in her lower limbs and absent knee and ankle reflexes bilaterally, but normal power in both her legs. A further full length T2 weighted MRI scan of the spine showed a small area of high signal at the level of T3 compatible with transverse myelitis. This was treated with high dose corticosteroids and her symptoms resolved over the next three months. CONCLUSION: The etiology of transverse myelitis after dural puncture in a parturient could not be identified nor could any causal link be established between the dural puncture, pneumocephalus, and subsequent transverse myelitis. ( info)
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