Cases reported "Myelodysplastic Syndromes"

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1/402. Clinical outcome in three patients with myelodysplastic syndrome showing polyclonal hematopoiesis.

    The clinical outcome of 3 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with polyclonal hematopoiesis is reported. All patients were heterozygous for the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The presence of polyclonal hematopoiesis was determined by the X-chromosome-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism-methylation method using the PGK gene as a marker. The patients were initially diagnosed as having refractory anemia (RA), RA with ring sideroblasts (RARS), and RA with an excess of blasts (RAEB), respectively. Their pancytopenia persisted during the follow-up period of 11.4 years for the RA patient, 19.5 years for the RARS patient and 0.8 years for the RAEB patient. Although the RARS patient continues to be in good health, leukemic transformation occurred in the other 2 patients. A karyotype change from 46,XX to 45,XX,t(3;21),-7 was observed at the time of disease progression in the RA patient. The coexistence of a monoclonal MDS clone and normal bone marrow cells is thought to be the most probable reason for the polyclonal hematopoiesis of these patients.
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2/402. Spontaneous remission of anemia associated with a myelodysplastic syndrome with disease evolution into a myeloproliferative state.

    A red cell transfusion-dependent patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome had progression into a myeloproliferative state with thrombocytosis. At the same time, the patient became transfusion independent, and a subsequent bone marrow examination revealed a previously undetected loss of chromosome 7. The patient remains well with control of thrombocytosis by anagrelide therapy.
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3/402. Pure red cell aplasia evolving through the hyperfibrotic myelodysplastic syndrome to the acute myeloid leukemia: some pathogenetic aspects.

    The authors report a 58-year-old female who originally presented with acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). At diagnosis, the karyotype was normal, the serum erythropoietin level was highly elevated and no T-cell mediated inhibition of erythropoiesis was demonstrated in coculture studies. Conventional immunosuppressive therapy proved ineffective. A year later a diagnosis of hyperfibrotic myelodysplastic syndrome was assessed. The sequential bone marrow examinations in the course of the three years showed a progressive increase in bone marrow fibrosis, erythroid hyperplasia and dysmegakaryocytopoiesis, terminating in the acute myeloid leukemia. This sequence of the events included the appearance of del(5)(q13q33), four years after setting a diagnosis of PRCA. The authors suggest that the absence of both cytogenetic abnormality and the signs of dyshematopoiesis at the diagnosis of PRCA does not exclude ultimately a "clonal" category of the disease. Thus, repeated hematological and cytogenetical reevaluations are recommended.
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4/402. posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome may not be reversible.

    The association of an acute reversible encephalopathy with transient occipital lobe abnormalities on imaging studies is well known. This condition has been called reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. The clinical presentation usually includes seizures, headache, altered mental status, and blindness, often associated with hypertension and immunosuppressants. The authors discuss a two-year-old male with down syndrome who presented 2 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with severe oculogyric crisis, without other complaints. The patient was being treated for hypertension and was receiving cyclosporine for prophylaxis of graft-vs-host disease. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed marked bilateral lucencies mainly involving the white matter of the occipital lobes, with a few foci of punctate hemorrhage. The condition improved when cyclosporine was discontinued, but an area of leukomalacia was identified on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. To the authors' knowledge, oculogyric crisis as a presentation of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy has not been previously described. Recognizing this association is important, because patients receiving cyclosporine are often receiving other medications that can potentially cause dystonic eye movements, possibly leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which can result in an irreversible neurologic deficit.
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5/402. Double haploidentical transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in a boy with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    A 12-year-old boy with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent a double transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from his haploidentical brother. After conditioning with busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and Vepesid, the first bone marrow transplantation was performed using 3.53 x 10(6)/kg of CD34 cells. Initial engraftment was followed by graft rejection. The second conditioning consisted of melphalan and anti-thymocyte globulin. The boy was then transplanted with 5.15 x 10(6)/kg of CD34 cells, harvested from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood. Graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine A short methotrexate. Hematological recovery was rapid and stable. Acute GvHD 1 degree (skin) resolved after 2 weeks of steroid treatment. A relapse occurred on day 140. At that time NK cells decreased from 20 to 7% with the lowest CD4 /CD8 ratio, 0.07. Just after relapse, the percentage of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK-CD3 CD56 ) dropped from 3.34 to 0.1%. CsA treatment was stopped and the patient received T cell (CD3 cells) add-back four times on days 146, 199, 234, and 262 in doses of 0.5 x 10(5), 1.0 x 10(5), 2.0 x 10(5), and 4.0 x 10(5)/kg, respectively. No acute GvHD occurred. Additionally, bone marrow biopsy before the second add-back showed complete remission. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets before the fourth add-back showed the highest values of CD4 , NK, and CIK cells and also the highest CD4 /CD8 ratio.
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6/402. Specific cutaneous lesions of the scalp in myelodysplastic syndrome with deletion of 20q.

    We reported a specific skin lesion on the scalp in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), treated as refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB). Histologically, a specimen from a nodule of the scalp consisted of a diffuse infiltration of atypical cells in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The patient died of acute leukemia 3 months later. Chromosomal examination of bone marrow cells revealed deletion of 20q and 21 trisomy. The specific cutaneous lesions in this patient were associated with acute transformation. The deletion of 20q and specific cutaneous lesions are regarded as signs of poor prognosis.
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7/402. De novo acute myelogenous leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia associated with t(8;21)(q22;q22).

    We describe a rare case of de novo acute myelogenous leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia (AML/TMDS) associated with t(8;21)(q22;q22). The patient was admitted to our hospital with leukocytopenia. AML/TMDS was diagnosed by excess myeloblasts and morphological findings of bone marrow. The karyotype revealed 45, X, -Y, t(8;21)(q22;q22) in 17 of 20 analyzed mitoses, and also AML1/MTG8 transcripts were detected by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The patient achieved a complete remission with a combination chemotherapy of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and prednisolone. This case suggests that t(8;21)(q22;q22) may participate in the pathogenesis of AML/TMDS, although this type is usually found as one of the chromosomal abnormalities in de novo acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with maturation.
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8/402. Myelodysplastic syndrome as a complication of neo-adjuvant triple M chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

    Cases of myelodysplastic syndrome occurring after multi-drug chemotherapy are rare; they are more often associated with the use of alkylating agents. We report the case history of a patient with myelodyspasia occurring after neoadjuvant methotrexate, mitoxantrone and mitomycin C (triple M) chemotherapy with subsequent radiotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. cytogenetic analysis of a bone marrow biopsy confirmed the typical chromosomal abnormalities associated with therapy related myelodysplasia. Few treatments for this disorder have been found to be of value. The aetiology, incidence and management options are briefly discussed.
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9/402. Myelodysplastic syndrome in a patient with adult T-cell leukaemia.

    A 53-year-old female who developed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after chemotherapy for adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is described. The latent period of therapy-related MDS (t-MDS) from the time of diagnosis of ATL was approximately 35 months. cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow cells at the time of diagnosis of t-MDS revealed a clonal abnormality; 46,XX,add(7)(p13), der(17)t(3;17)(p11;p13). Although monoclonal integration of human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral dna was detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes at ATL diagnosis, bone marrow cells at t-MDS diagnosis did not show monoclonal integration of HTLV-I. To our knowledge, this is the first report of t-MDS associated with ATL.
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10/402. Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis of a novel cell line established from a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome in blastic transformation.

    We have previously reported that vitamin K2 (VK2) has a potent apoptosis inducing activity toward various types of primary cultured leukemia cells including acute myelogenous leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We established a novel cell line, designated MDS-KZ, from a patient with MDS in blastic transformation, and further investigated the effects of VK2 using this novel cell line. MDS-KZ shows complex chromosomal anomaly including -4, 5q-, -7, 13q , 20q-, consistent with that seen in the original patient. culture of MDS-KZ cells in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% FBS lead to steady but very slow proliferation with a doubling time of 14 days. However, the cellular growth rate was significantly accelerated in the presence of various growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and thrombopoietin. Most of the cultured cells show the morphological features of myeloblasts. They are positive for CD7, CD33, CD34, CD45, CD117, and HLA-DR. However, about 10% of the cells are more mature metamyelocytes and neutrophils with various dysplastic characteristics such as pseudo-Pelger nuclear anomaly and hypersegmentation, suggesting a potential for differentiation in this cell line. As previously reported for cultured primary leukemia cells, exposure to VK2, but not to VK1, resulted in induction of apoptosis of MDS-KZ cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 5 microM). In addition, VK2 treatment induced down-regulation of BCL-2 and up-regulation of BAX protein expression with concomitant activation of caspase-3 (CPP32). A tetrapeptide functioning as antagonist of caspase-3, Ac-DEVD-H, suppressed the VK2-induced inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that caspase-3 is, at least in part, involved in VK2-induced apoptosis. These observations suggest that the MDS-KZ cell line can serve as a model for the study of the molecular mechanisms of VK2-induced apoptosis.
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