Cases reported "Myelodysplastic Syndromes"

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11/402. Myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia showing peculiar chromosomal abnormality: a case report.

    Myelodysplastic syndrome is a closely related group of acquired bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective and dysplastic hematopoiesis. These clonal disorders frequently progress to acute leukemia. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia is characterized by an increase in abnormal eosinophils in the bone marrow, relatively good clinical course and inv (16) chromosomal abnormality. We experienced one case of refractory anemia with excess blasts which progressed to refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation and finally to acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia showing peculiar chromosomal abnormalities of der (1;7).
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12/402. Eosinophilic myelodysplasia transforming to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    A 43 year old male presented with a marked eosinophilia and associated systemic symptoms. A diagnosis of myelodysplasia was made on the basis of bone marrow morphology and karyotype. Over a 12 month period the disease transformed into acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, confirmed by flow cytometry, cytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. karyotyping was abnormal with 5q- and -7 which persisted from diagnosis through to blastic transformation. He died following initial induction chemotherapy. Eosinophilic myelodysplasia is an uncommon condition in haematological practice and no previous report of lymphoblastic transformation has been found.
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13/402. Myelodysplastic syndrome with atypical eosinophilia in association with ring chromosome 7. A case report.

    The presence of morphologically abnormal eosinophils in the bone marrow and/or peripheral blood has been rarely reported as a prominent feature in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Specific chromosomal aberrations have been observed in such cases. We report a case of a 76-year-old man who presented with chronic, transfusion-dependent anemia. Peripheral blood smear analysis revealed anisocytes, mild leukopenia, and occasional hypersegmented eosinophils. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy and aspiration disclosed hypercellularity, and morphologic abnormalities within the megakaryocyte, erythroid, and myeloid series. The myeloid population was predominantly comprised of eosinophils with varying degrees of dyspoiesis. The constellation of hematologic findings were without a precise categorization according to the FAB classification of myelodysplastic syndromes. Subsequent cytogenetic techniques demonstrated a ring chromosome 7 in all 20 metaphases analyzed in cultured bone marrow cells. Eighty-five-percent of the analyzed cells showed a ring chromosome composed of both the long and short arms: r(7)(p22q36). In the remaining metaphases, the ring was composed of only the short arm: r(7)(p22q10). To our knowledge, these uncommon cytogenetic abnormalities have not been previously reported in association with MDS with morphologically atypical bone marrow or peripheral eosinophilia.
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14/402. trisomy 21 as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    We report five cases of myeloid disorders in which trisomy 21 ( 21) was found as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality, comprising two cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and three cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In this series, MDS patients with 21 presented as high grade disease, which included two cases of refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and one case of refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEBt), and showed rapid disease progression. Significant thrombocytopenia was observed in all three patients, and bone marrow examination showed a marked reduction in megakaryocytes. AML patients with 21 included one case each of AML-M2 and M4. Despite the poor prognosis reported in AML patients with 21 as the sole abnormality, the patient in our series who was able to complete intensive treatment was cured of disease. The role of 21 in leukemogenesis is reviewed.
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15/402. Shwachman-diamond syndrome: early bone marrow transplantation in a high risk patient and new clues to pathogenesis.

    Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by exocrine pancreas insufficiency, metaphyseal dysostosis and bone marrow dysfunction. Recurrent severe bacterial infections and susceptibility to leukaemia are the major causes of morbidity and mortality occurring preferentially in patients with pancytopenia and features of myelodysplasia. Here we report a patient with SDS leading to recurrent bacterial infections and a deteriorating condition since early infancy. Extensive investigations disclosed severe pancytopenia, myelodysplasia and a clonal cytogenetic abnormality, inv(14)(q11q32), as risk factors of leukaemic transformation. He therefore underwent allogeneic geno-identical bone marrow transplantation which resulted in correction of all haematological and immunological abnormalities within an 18-month follow up period.Conclusion bone marrow transplantation may be considered early as a valuable treatment option especially in high risk Schwachman-diamond syndrome patients anticipating malignant transformation, life-threatening severe infections or further organ damage.
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16/402. Discordant detection of monosomy 7 by GTG-banding and FISH in a patient with Shwachman-diamond syndrome without evidence of myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia.

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematologic disorders commonly affecting elderly persons and often leading to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although rare in children, when MDS does occur, it is frequently part of a congenital disorder such as Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SDS). monosomy 7 and/or deletion of part or all of 7q are poor prognostic signs in MDS and AML, although the pathophysiologic relationship between this finding and MDS or AML is unclear. Shwachman-diamond syndrome is an inherited illness characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and by congenital neutropenia. patients with SDS are at increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Because monosomy 7 is a poor prognostic sign in MDS and AML, establishing its presence is important. However, different methods of detection of monosomy 7 may lead to different results in some patients. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl known to have SDS, who had a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy done to rule out MDS and AML. By light microscopy, the patient's bone marrow was unremarkable. GTG-banding showed the following karyotype: 45,XX,-C[3]/47,XX, C[1]/46,XX[45]. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with a chromosome 7-specific alpha-satellite probe (D7Z1). Almost all (373 of 376) cells exhibited only one chromosome 7 signal. A second marrow aspiration done 6 months later showed an essentially normal karyotype by GTG-banding. fluorescence in situ hybridization with the same chromosome 7 probe showed 230 of 250 cells to be monosomic for chromosome 7. A whole chromosome 7 painting probe demonstrated disomy for chromosome 7 in 90 of 90 cells; however, subtle heteromorphism in the centromeric regions of the 2 copies of chromosome 7 was noted in some cells. This case demonstrates that FISH and GTG-banding can give discordant results, that the two should be viewed as complementary technologies, and that both have a place in a full karyotypic analysis. Furthermore, this case demonstrates for the first time that heteromorphism and/or subtle structural abnormalities of chromosome 7, previously associated with MDS and AML, can exist without clinical or morphologic signs of these illnesses. It will be of interest to further study the relationship, if any, between SDS and various structural abnormalities of chromosome 7 in MDS and AML, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, physiology, and treatment of these disorders.
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17/402. Improved hematopoiesis using amifostine in secondary myelodysplasia.

    An 11-year-old boy with multiply relapsed lymphoblastic disease became transfusion dependent with myelodysplasia and chromosomal abnormalities after 5 years of aggressive therapy. At 5 years of age, he presented with transient idiopathic hypoplastic anemia and neutropenia that spontaneously resolved within a month. Three months later, he experienced lymphoblastic lymphoma in the left parotid region and subsequently experienced disease relapse in his testicles, bone marrow, and central nervous system during a 3-year period. He has received multiagent chemotherapy, autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, and testicular and whole neuraxis irradiation therapy. After craniospinal irradiation, he did not recover normal bone marrow function. His bone marrow was hypocellular, and he required platelet and erythrocyte transfusions and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Marrow cytogenetic studies revealed new multiple translocations. Within a month of the initiation of intravenous amifostine at 200 mg/m2/dose three times a week, his leukocyte count, neutrophil count, and hemoglobin level normalized. His platelet count also improved sufficiently to achieve transfusion independence. He has returned to school and engages in other normal activities for his age. amifostine may improve hematopoiesis in secondary myelodysplastic syndromes in children.
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18/402. Behcet's disease associated with myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report.

    A rare case of Behcet's disease associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is described. A 50-year-old Korean female suffering recurrent oral ulcer, genital ulcer, fatigue, arthralgia in both knees and fever was diagnosed as Behcet's disease. The findings of bone marrow aspirates were consistent with refractory anemia, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome. Chromosomal analysis of bone marrow cells revealed 46,XX,-8,-20, der(8)t(8;20)(p23;p10), der(8) t(8;20)(p23;q10)[30]. The chromosomal changes found in this patient were different from those of previous reports, which mostly revealed trisomy 8. If anemia, low reticulocyte count and dyspoietic cells are sustained in Behcet's disease, physicians should be alert to the possibility of MDS with aberration in chromosome 8 and perform a bone marrow study for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We presented a case of Behcet's disease associated with MDS, which is the first Korean case.
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19/402. Paediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukaemia (JCML) detected by cytogenetic and FISH techniques.

    This report presents two rare cases, one of paediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and the other juvenile chronic myeloid leukaemia (jCML). In the first case, there were clinical and biological features of MDS-refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB). The bone marrow (BM) karyotype demonstrated a monosomy 7 which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, FISH analysis showed that an alpha-satellite dna sequence had been transferred from chromosomes 13/21 to one homologue of chromosomes 22. The BCR-ABL rearrangement was negative. In the second case, at diagnosis, the karyotype was 46,XX. FISH analysis with the simultaneous and individual application of abl and bcr probes for chromosome 9 and 22, respectively, revealed the presence of the BCR-ABL rearrangement in addition to an extra ABL sequence locating chromosome 20. A clone that was BCR-ABL gene rearrangement negative but with an extra ABL dna sequence on chromsome 20, and another clone that was BCR-ABL gene rearrangement negative were detected by DC-FISH and uni-colour (UC-) FISH analysis. No monosomy 7 was detected by conventional cytogenetic or FISH analyses.
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20/402. Pseudo-Gaucher cells in myelodysplasia.

    A case of myelodysplastic syndrome is reported, in which the bone marrow contained many cells with the typical light microscopic morphology of Gaucher cells. In the absence of any evidence of inherited Gaucher's disease, these cells are considered to be pseudo-Gaucher cells, which have been described previously in association with other haematological diseases. This is the first report of their occurrence in myelodysplastic syndrome.
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