Cases reported "Myelodysplastic Syndromes"

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21/402. trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 resulting in a dicentric derivative (6)t(1;6) chromosome in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment for a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    We report the clinical, hematologic, and cytogenetic findings for a child with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after treatment for a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. At the time of conversion to MDS, conventional cytogenetics revealed an unbalanced der(6)t(1;6) that resulted in trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 1 and partial monosomy and duplication of 6p. Using alpha satellite probes, fluorescence in situ hybridization of bone marrow cells showed that the rearranged chromosome contained the centromeres of both chromosomes 1 and 6, thus forming a dic(1;6) resulting in trisomy 1q. This report is the first to describe a case of childhood secondary myelodysplastic syndrome associated with a trisomy 1q involving chromosome 6.
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22/402. adult onset cyclic hematopoiesis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    A 75-year-old woman presenting with myelodysplastic syndrome showed cyclic oscillations in her white blood cell and platelet counts. Each cycle lasted for 5 to 6 months, with 4 cycles occurring over the course of a 2-year period. During successive cycles, the white blood cell count fluctuated from 10.1 to 2.6; 13.8 to 1.8; 11.0 to 1.6, and 8.6 to 1.3 x 10(9)/L. The platelet count fluctuated from 242 to 38, 199 to 11, 110 to 5, and 75 to 3 x 10(9)/L. The patient underwent red blood cell transfusions because of red blood cell aplasia; the frequency of the transfusions and the erythropoietin concentration in serum were inversely correlated. The number of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units and CD34-positive cells in peripheral blood oscillated in phase with the white blood cell and platelet counts. These patterns suggested a periodic influx of progenitor cells from hematopoietic stem cells. The ratio of neutrophils to mononuclear cells remained essentially constant throughout the clinical course. Lymphocyte subset assessments using monoclonal antibodies showed an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio (less than 1) and extreme B cell lymphopenia throughout the fourth cycle. The percentage of CD3-positive cells oscillated inversely, suggesting that the cyclic cytopenia had an immune mechanism involving T lymphocytes.
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23/402. Successful bone marrow transplantation in an adult patient with reactive hemophagocytic syndrome associated with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    We report an adult case of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received emergency bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Despite methylprednisolone pulse therapy, high-dose gamma-globulin, and chemotherapy containing etoposide, the pancytopenia progressed. After informed consent, the patient underwent syngeneic BMT using melphalan as the conditioning regimen. The patient has been well without relapse of RHS and MDS for more than 2 years after BMT. This result suggests that the above strategy, including BMT, should be considered for the treatment of adult RHS associated with hematological malignancy.
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24/402. Myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of malignant melanoma with vincristine, ACNU, and dacarbazine.

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome is a rare adverse effect in melanoma patients elicited by chemotherapy. We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of malignant melanoma with alkylating agents. Peripheral blood showed a remarkable suppression of three cell lineages, and the bone marrow was slightly hypercellular. However, no morphological abnormalities were detected in the peripheral blood or the bone marrow, and chromosomal analysis was normal.
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25/402. mastocytosis cells bearing a c-kit activating point mutation are characterized by hypersensitivity to stem cell factor and increased apoptosis.

    mastocytosis is characterized by abnormal infiltration of mast cells into various organs. An activating mutation in c-kit, involving an A --> T substitution at nucleotide 2648 has recently been described in some patients with mastocytosis. We describe a 12-year-old girl with this mutation in her bone marrow cells at diagnosis with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) without evidence of mastocytosis, and then in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 1 year later after the emergence of mastocytosis. The role of the c-Kit receptor and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) in the pathogenesis of the disease was analysed in marrow cell clonogenic assays. We show that the genetic abnormalities in the patient resulted in factor-independent growth and hypersensitivity of primitive progenitors to SCF, with increased production of mast cells. Increased apoptosis and cluster formation, consistent with the myelodysplastic nature of the disorder, accompanied accumulation of abnormal cells with increasing concentrations of SCF.
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26/402. Bilateral necrotizing scleritis and blindness in the myelodysplastic syndrome presumably due to relapsing polychondritis.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report a case of bilateral blindness, bilateral necrotizing scleritis, and bilateral deafness in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In such a patient, the possibility of relapsing polychondritis (RPC) associated with MDS must be considered. CASE REPORT/methods: A 66-year-old patient suffered from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Shortly before his death, he became bilaterally blind and deaf. A biopsy was taken from the conjunctiva and the bone marrow, and both eyes were obtained after death for further investigation. Findings of the clinical and laboratory work-up for the patient's hematologic disorder as well as an examination of the eyes by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry are presented. RESULTS: Ocular sections showed a diffuse necrotizing scleritis with moderate uveitis and no identifiable infectious agent. Neither was there any evidence of a leukemic infiltration. The deafness had been due to inner ear failure, and the patient died of a cardiac failure. CONCLUSIONS: Non-infectious scleritis associated with inner ear deafness is a strong indication of relapsing polychondritis (RPC). Furthermore, RPC can be associated with MDS. Thus, in addition to leukemic infiltration and infection involving ocular structures, ophthalmologists and otolargyngologists should be aware of the association between MDS and RPC and the potential complications.
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27/402. 5q- syndrome presenting chronic myeloproliferative disorders-like manifestation: a case report.

    A 28-year-old Japanese woman with suspected essential thrombocythemia (ET) had marked thrombocytosis, mild leukocytosis with normal neutrophil alkaline phosphatase activity, and no anemia. She was monitored without being given any medication. Eleven years later, complete blood counts showed no remarkable changes but some non-lobulated mononuclear megakaryocytes were found in the bone marrow. cytogenetic analysis revealed deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q-). Subsequently, hemoglobin and platelet counts decreased gradually, splenomegaly appeared and progressed, after which myelofibrosis developed. Acute leukemia developed 16 years after the first documentation of thrombocytosis. 5q- syndrome is known to be a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with unique clinical features and cases with this syndrome presenting with thrombocytosis of more than 1,000 x 10(9)/L but without anemia are rare. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that in this patient transition to acute leukemia occurred following development of myelofibrosis and marked splenomegaly, which are generally observed in blastic crises resulting from chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). The patient showed features indicative of CMPD rather than of MDS in spite of presenting with 5q- chromosomal abnormality. This case supports the concept of "mixed myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes" and suggests the possibility of the appearance of CMPD-like manifestations in 5q- syndrome.
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28/402. Familial myelodysplastic syndrome with early age of onset.

    A family is described in which three members, the propositus, his brother, and son, developed a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at the ages of 52, 35, and 25, respectively. A fourth member, the paternal uncle of the propositus, was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Two of the three affected Individuals had megaloblastoid marrows with recognizable bone marrow cytogenetic abnormalities and progressive, nonleukemic bone marrow failure. The propositus was unresponsive to G-CSF and eventually died of sepsis. The second affected family member died of bone marrow transplant complications. The third affected family member underwent bone marrow transplantation and is showing signs of graft survival despite minor complications. The affected members of this pedigree appear to represent a continuum in severity of disease and, therefore, pathogenesis. The pattern of inheritance and clinical progression of the disease suggest a genetic defect which may predispose individuals to the development of MDS.
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29/402. Interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 12 during clonal evolution in myelodysplastic syndrome with t(5;12)(q13;p13) involving the ETV6 gene.

    We report here a 65-year-old man with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), refractory anemia with excess of blasts. He had received chemotherapy with tegafur for renal carcinoma. Chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells revealed complex karyotypes; del(5)(q13) was observed in all 20 metaphase spreads, and two related aberrations, add(12)(p11) and add(12)(p13), were detected in 13 and 7 cells, respectively. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with chromosome-specific DNAs revealed that these alterations originated from a reciprocal translocation (5;12)(q13;p13). Therefore, del(5)(q13), add(12)(p11), and add(12)(p13) were revised as der(5)t(5;12)(q13;p13), der(12)del(12)(p11p13)t(5;12)(q13;p13), and der(12)t(5;12)(q13;p13), respectively. fluorescence in situ hybridization with a series of cosmid probes spanning the ETV6 gene showed that the 12p13 breakpoint on the der(12)t(5;12)(q13;p13) was located in intron 1, but the exon 1 signal was deleted. Our results suggest that a fusion gene was generated between the 5'-end of an unidentified partner at 5q13 and the 3'-end of ETV6 by t(5;12)(q13;p13), and that the interstitial deletion (12)(p11p13) occurred following t(5;12) during clonal evolution. del(12)(p11p13), including the rearranged ETV6 gene, may be implicated in the progression of MDS.
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30/402. Treatment with low-dose cytosine arabinoside followed by administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor prolongs the survival of patients with RAEB, RAEB-T, or leukemic phase myelodysplastic syndrome: a pilot study.

    The treatment of patients with aggressive subclasses of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains a challenge. In an effort to improve the survival of patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t), or acute myelogenous leukemia transformed from MDS (MDS-AML), we conducted a small trial in which 28 such patients were treated with low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LDAraC) followed by administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The overall rate of response to the treatment was 61%, including 39% with a complete response, which is higher than rates obtained in previous studies in which LDAraC alone was administered to patients with MDS. Median survival was 23.5 months in cases of RAEB, 16.7 months in cases of RAEB-t, and 19.7 months in cases of MDS-AML. The overall survival of the study group appeared to be prolonged in comparison with a historical control group of patients treated with LDAraC alone. It is suggested that M-CSF added to the administration of LDAraC plays an active role in the therapy. No therapy-related death occurred. Some unique actions of M-CSF were suggested in this trial. It is concluded that therapy with LDAraC M-CSF is a useful treatment option for patients with aggressive subclasses of MDS and MDS-AML to provide better response and survival.
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