Cases reported "Myocardial Infarction"

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1/37. Post-infarction cardiac rupture.

    Three allied conditions are described in this paper: (i) haemopericardium with cardiac rupture (5 cases); (ii) haemopericardium without rupture (2 cases); (iii) pseudoaneurysm (1 case). In the first 2 of these, the significant features were clinical deterioration with shock 3 or more days after infarction, recurrent cardiac pain, cardiac tamponade, and immediate or later ineffectiveness of counterpulsation. An additional feature in the second group was the development of haemopericardium after heparin therapy. In the third group, infarction followed by left ventricular failure and progressive cardiac enlargement was the significant feature. An apical systolic murmur was not present, as a false sac had not been formed. Ante-mortem diagnosis depends upon an appreciation of these features. Without it successful surgery is impossible. There were 4 survivors in this group of 8 patients.
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2/37. Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery in a young cocaine user.

    A young woman, currently user of cocaine, was admitted because of acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. The coronary arteriography revealed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery. Despite the use of an intraaortic counterpulsation balloon and successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, she developed electromechanical dissociation, unresponsive to resuscitation manoeuvres.
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3/37. Right ventricular infarction with cardiogenic shock treated with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support: a case report.

    A patient with a right ventricular infarction was resuscitated with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), after attempts at reperfusion, high-dose inotropic support and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation failed to improve the hemodynamic compromise. Emergency PCPS improved the cardiogenic shock and the reduced right ventricular load, allowing the ischemic right ventricle to recover in the setting of unsuccessful reperfusion. This case demonstrates the use of PCPS as a hemodynamic support device for spontaneous recovery of the ischemic right ventricle. PCPS may be a potential therapy for patients with right ventricular infarction.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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4/37. Isolated right ventricular assist for postcardiotomy myocardial infarction.

    Due to myocardial infarction, profound postcardiotomy right heart failure developed in a 57-year-old man after implantation of an aortic homograft for infective aortic valve endocarditis. Despite maximum medical therapy and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation, signs of endorgan injury developed, and therefore a Thoratec (Pleasanton, CA) right ventricular assist device was implanted. After 17 days of support, myocardial and endorgan function had recovered and the fully mobilized patient was successfully weaned from support and discharged from the hospital.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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5/37. Vasopressin effective in reversing catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock.

    A patient with perforated appendicitis developed progressive vasodilatory shock which was complicated by perioperative acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular support included dopamine infusion, and later, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation balloon pump and noradrenaline and dobutamine infusion. Vasopressin was introduced as a final attempt to reverse the refractory shock and was associated with recovery. The experience with this case suggests that vasopressin may be a valuable adjunct to the treatment of catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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6/37. Improvement of regional myocardial and coronary blood flow reserve in a patient treated with enhanced external counterpulsation: evaluation by nitrogen-13 ammonia PET.

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment for chronic stable angina, which works by recruiting and developing the coronary collateral vessels. Coronary perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were evaluated by nitrogen-13 (13N) ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) in a patient who had undergone EECP. The patient, who had 3-vessel coronary artery disease, required a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the right coronary artery. The PTCA was successful, but 6 months later he again felt chest oppression. The coronary angiography showed re-stenosis at the PTCA site, and other progressive coronary stenosis. The patient was again treated with EECP for 35 h. The 13N-ammonia PET was performed both at baseline and during dipyridamole provocation, before and after EECP treatment. Coronary perfusion of each myocardial wall increased at the baseline (anterior: 0.52-0.75; septal: 0.48-0.66; lateral: 0.61-0.68; inferior: 0.46-0.57 ml min(-1) g(-1), and the CFRs in the septal and inferior walls (septal: 2.07-2.15; inferior: 1.99-2.06) also increased after the treatment. Thus, the EECP treatment improved both coronary perfusion at baseline and CFR, which suggests that it may be one of the choices for treatment of angina.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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7/37. Hibernating myocardium, stunning, ischemic preconditioning: clinical relevance.

    hibernation is a chronic condition that can be due to either chronic low perfusion or repetitive stunning. When oxygen demands increase, prolonged periods of ischemia occur, resulting in multiple episodes of stunning. Because hibernation may play a significant role in refractory failure, the diagnosis of hibernation followed by reperfusion can be life saving. myocardium that has sustained a transient sublethal injury but has the potential for recovery with time is referred to as stunned myocardium. myocardial stunning is commonly seen after coronary artery bypass surgery: variable periods of myocardial ischemia are sustained during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and when these patients return to the intensive care unit, their ventricular function is severely impaired because of the prolonged anoxia during bypass. With the support of artificial assist devices, counterpulsation or temporary use of catecholamines, these patients improve and have a favorable prognosis. Similarly, recovery occurs with time in stunning that follows AMI or cardiac transplantation because in either case the heart had been temporarily anoxic. Clinical observations of ischemic preconditioning include the following: (1) first-effort angina or "warm-up phenomenon," i.e., angina with exercise early, but similar or greater effort the rest of the day does not cause any angina and (2) mortality of AMI is lower in patients with a history of angina preceding AMI. Angina 1 to 2 hours before AMI is the most effective time window for ischemic preconditioning. A less potent "second window" is observed when angina occurs during the second to fourth day before AMI. adenosine possesses marked cardioprotective properties and has been used to pharmacologically induce ischemic preconditioning with some success. work is still in progress.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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8/37. Catastrophic consequences of a free floating thrombus in ascending aorta.

    Floating masses in ascending aorta are an uncommon source of embolism. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, smoker, on synthetic progestagen, with no previous history of thrombotic events, who was admitted to our emergency department for an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram showed occlusion of left main coronary trunk. Recanalization of the artery was obtained. Ascending aorta angiogram revealed a free floating mass attached to the aortic wall without evidence of aortic dissection. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the presence of a pedunculated mobile mass attached to the aortic wall superior to the left coronary ostium. The patient underwent urgent surgery. Intraoperatively a floating thrombus was localized in the posterior wall of ascending aorta. At macroscopical examination aortic wall and leaflets were normal. Post-operative low cardiac output refractory to inotropic drugs and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation required a circulatory assist device. Consequences for the patient were catastrophic in terms of outcome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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9/37. Possible intra-aortic balloon pump "function-related" mechanism of embolic events in patient with protruding atheroma in the thoracic aorta.

    A possible new functional mechanism of atheromatous embolus is presented resulting from reversed aortic blood flow during diastolic augmentation by balloon counterpulsation. This mechanism is different from mechanical disruption during insertion. Despite this, intra-aortic balloon remains an important asset in the management of hemodynamically challenged patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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10/37. Two- and three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of intramyocardial dissecting hematoma after myocardial infarction.

    The echocardiographic findings of an intramyocardial dissecting hematoma that formed after an extensive acute myocardial infarction of the anterior wall of a 42-year- old man are described. Serial transesophageal studies were used to construct 3-dimensional images that clarified the participation of various myocardial layers that surrounded the dissecting hematoma. The patient was successfully treated with intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation and subsequently coronary artery bypass grafting. Intramyocardial dissecting hematoma is a rare complication of acute infarction; differential diagnosis must be made with pseudoaneurysm by establishing integrity of epicardium and with intracavitary thrombosis by identifying the endomyocardial layer surrounding the neoformation and associated wall movement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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