Cases reported "Myocardial Infarction"

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1/148. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction with prolonged intracoronary urokinase delivery through intracoronary infusion catheter.

    Severe acute myocardial infarction in young patients is plagued by high mortality. We report the case of a 25-year-old man, with a family history of ischemic heart disease, who was treated with acute and prolonged intracoronary urokinase infused through a miniaturized catheter engaged in a large thrombus occluding the left anterior descending artery. Rapid and stable recanalization was achieved with complete lysis of thrombotic material.
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2/148. Concomitant coronary artery revascularization and right pneumonectomy without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Combined coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and pneumonectomy has a high morbidity and mortality rate, especially when the right lung has to be removed. A patient is described who underwent a CABG operation through a midline sternotomy without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and a right pneumonectomy through a right lateral thoracotomy in one operative session. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which this operative strategy was employed. CABG operations without the use of CPB might put concomitant lung surgery in a new perspective.
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3/148. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst manifesting as a catastrophic myocardial infarction.

    Congenital bronchogenic cysts of the lung and mediastinum develop from the ventral foregut during embryogenesis. These cysts are often incidental radiologic findings in adults, but patients can be seen with symptoms of chest pain, cough, dyspnea, or any combination of these. Acute presentations are unusual and have rarely been reported. We present the unique case of a 36-year-old man seen with an acute coronary syndrome and sudden hemodynamic collapse. The patient sustained a massive and ultimately fatal myocardial infarction, compression of the left main coronary artery by a bronchogenic cyst was demonstrated at postmortem examination. If detected, bronchogenic cysts should be surgically excised to limit associated morbidity and mortality.
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4/148. Spontaneous dissection of coronary artery in a patient with ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic valve regurgitation.

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of myocardial infarction associated with a significant high morbidity and mortality. It usually occurs in relatively young patients and it is frequently found at autopsy. We report a case of a 42-year-old woman, who underwent resection of subaortic diaphragm ten years earlier presenting with postero-lateral myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography revealed a dissection of the left main stem extending distally to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and circumflex artery (Cx); occlusion of the postero-lateral branch of the Cx; severe aortic valve regurgitation and ascending aortic aneurysm. She was successfully operated on in emergency and underwent myocardial revascularization and separate replacement of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta. In this specific case of coronary dissection and severe aortic regurgitation it is mandatory to perform surgery in emergency to limit infarction evolution and avert loss of life.
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5/148. Primary stenting of the left main coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: case report.

    Although acute left main coronary artery (LMCA) occlusion is a rare angiographic finding, it carries a very high mortality rate and most of the patients with this clinical condition die from sudden death or cardiogenic shock due to malignant arrhythmia or pump failure. The high mortality rate and tendency to lead rapidly to death are chiefly related to extensive myocardial injury. We report a case of cardiogenic shock resulting from acute myocardial infarction. Emergency cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiography showed a totally occluded LMCA. Prompt revascularization by means of primary LMCA stenting was successful and the patient was discharged 2 weeks later with only mild congestive heart failure. We suggest that the rapid performance of angiographic studies in this patient with cardiogenic shock was the turning point in saving her life. We also suggest primary LMCA stenting as an effective procedure for saving lives because it may reverse cardiogenic shock and prevent a probable fatal outcome.
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6/148. Update on management of acute myocardial infarction: facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Combination therapy with abciximab and reteplase and heparin allows high rates of patency 60 minutes after therapy. PTCA is facilitated by these adjunctive therapies to improve procedural outcomes. Stent implantation and blockade of the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor with abciximab provide potent complementary benefits allowing PTCA to be performed at a new standard of safety and efficacy. Thus the acronym FPCI stands for the use of drugs, angioplasty and stenting. time and experience will determine the efficacy of the combined pharmacological-mechanical bridge. We believe that FPCI is the wave of the future and that in skilled hands this emergent coordinated care of acute MI has lowered and will continue to lower morbidity and mortality in acute coronary events.
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7/148. Cerebral aneurysm rupture after r-TPA thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage is the most dreaded risk of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction because of the high mortality and disability rates associated with this complication. brain structural lesions may predispose a patient to bleeding. To date, aneurysm rupture has not been described as a complication of such therapy. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old hypertensive woman was admitted because of chest pain. myocardial infarction was diagnosed and fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) was initiated. Eight hours after admission she became unconscious. brain computed tomography scan showed subarachnoid hemorrhage, and a cerebral arteriography showed an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Because of her poor clinical condition treatment was postponed. Death occurred 7 days later because of multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral aneurysms should be considered as a possible contributing factor to intracranial bleeding after thrombolytic therapy.
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8/148. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy with coronary artery balloon angioplasty and stenting.

    Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy is a rare condition with substantial risk of maternal and fetal mortality. We present a case of myocardial infarction during pregnancy which was treated by percutaneous coronary artery balloon angioplasty and stenting with excellent pregnancy outcome.
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9/148. Catastrophic outcomes of noncardiac surgery soon after coronary stenting.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical course of patients who have undergone coronary stent placement less than six weeks before noncardiac surgery. BACKGROUND: Surgical and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularization performed before high-risk noncardiac surgery is expected to reduce perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality. Perioperative and postoperative complications in patients who have undergone coronary stenting before a noncardiac surgery have not been studied. methods: Forty patients who underwent coronary stent placement less than six weeks before noncardiac surgery requiring a general anesthesia were included in the study (1-39 days, average: 13 days). The records were screened for the occurrence of adverse clinical events, including myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, peri- and postoperative bleeding and death. RESULTS: In 40 consecutive patients meeting the study criteria, there were seven myocardial infarctions (MIs), 11 major bleeding episodes and eight deaths. All deaths and MIs, as well as 8/11 bleeding episodes, occurred in patients subjected to surgery fewer than 14 days from stenting. Four patients expired after undergoing surgery one day after stenting. Based on electrocardiogram, enzymatic and angiographic evidence, stent thrombosis accounted for most of the fatal events. The time between stenting and surgery appeared to be the main determinant of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Postponing elective noncardiac surgery for two to four weeks after coronary stenting should permit completion of the mandatory antiplatelet regimen, thereby reducing the risk of stent thrombosis and bleeding complications.
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10/148. pathology of hearts after aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting for coronary artery disease, studied by post-mortem coronary angiography.

    A detailed pathological study was made in 10 patients dying up to 13 months after aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafting for coronary atherosclerosis. The coronary arteries and vein grafts were investigated by injection with a radio-opaque mass, radiography, dissection, and histology. The report is to some extent historical since the patients died during a period when the operation was first being introduced into two cardiothoracic hospitals. About 80 operations were performed during the time the 10 deaths occurred, a mortality of 12-5 per cent (including cases followed up to 13 months after operation). Seven of the patients were operated on for intractable angina and 3 with a view to aneurysmectomy. All the patients selected for operation were severely disabled despite medical treatment. The main cause of death was extremely severe coronary artery disease and its effects on the left ventricle; in one case, over two-thirds of the left ventricle had been destroyed by infarction before operation. Other causes or contributing causes of death were pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction complicating angiography (ostial stenosis), and cerebral damage. Ten of the 14 vein grafts (71%) were patent at necropsy. A free flow of injection medium usually occurred between patent grafts and coronary arteries. thrombosis of a graft was thought to have contributed to death in 3 patients, but not in a fourth who died of pulmonary embolism. Since thrombosis of grafts was usually secondary to poor run-off blood into severely atheromatous coronary arteries, this was also an indirect effect of the advanced coronary arterial disease. In one case, thrombosis followed severe chronic intimal thickening of a graft in place for 13 months. The study of these deaths emphasizes that in some patients the pathological changes in the coronary arteries and left ventricle are too severe for them to benefit from surgery. Vein grafts cannot be expected to distribute blood effectively through grossly narrowed coronary arteries. In addition, when a large part of the left ventricle is infarcted or scarred, it is almost certain that improving the blood supply by grafting will not result in significant regeneration of cardiac muscle. Since the time when this study was made, there have been few deaths among the many vein graft operations subsequently carried out in the hospitals involved. The two most important factors thought responsible for the improvement are the selection of cases more suitable for surgery by continued improvement of diagnostic techniques, and also the employment of more radical surgical procedures in the form of coronary endarterectomy and the insertion of more grafts per patient.
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