Cases reported "Myocarditis"

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1/95. Postpartum onset of acute heart failure possibly due to postpartum autoimmune myocarditis. A report of three cases.

    autoimmune diseases, especially autoimmune thyroid disease, frequently develop after delivery due to the immune rebound mechanism. Most cases have transient dysfunction of affected organs. Cardiac dysfunction developed after delivery is called postpartum or peripartum cardiomyopathy. However, the aetiology of the disease is not clarified yet. Here we report three cases that developed acute heart failure in the postpartum period. One was complicated with an atrioventricular block and postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis. All patients recovered to normal cardiac function or pre-attack condition after 1 month of therapy with conventional drugs and bed rest. All three had positive antiheart antibody detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and one had antibody to heart myosin detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, one of two patients examined revealed lymphocytic infiltration by endomyocardial biopsy. antibodies to 26 viruses were not elevated significantly during the first 2 weeks after admission in any case. It is strongly suggested that heart failure is induced by postpartum autoimmune myocarditis, and thus clinicians should be aware of this disease.
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2/95. Lyme carditis: complete AV dissociation with episodic asystole presenting as syncope in the emergency department.

    We report a case of Lyme carditis in an otherwise-healthy young male who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with syncope and a possible seizure. This patient, without documented history of lyme disease, acutely developed third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with episodic asystole, which required placement of a transvenous pacemaker in the ED and resolved only after the patient had been placed on ceftriaxone. We discuss the significance of Lyme carditis and its increasing prevalence, and review the current literature. We also recommend appropriate screening modalities for patients with known lyme disease, or an atypical profile for cardiac abnormalities.
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3/95. Advanced heart block as a manifestation of a paraneoplastic syndrome from malignant thymoma.

    Malignant thymoma is a rare tumor that is associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. myocarditis as a paraneoplastic syndrome has been rarely described. Reported herein is a young male patient with malignant thymoma and myocarditis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This resulted in high-degree heart block and an asystolic cardiac arrest despite placement of a permanent pacemaker.
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4/95. borrelia burgdorferi as a cause of Morgagni-adams-stokes syndrome. Long time follow-up study.

    According the literature atrio-ventricular blockade (AVB) is the most frequent and well-known symptom of Lyme carditis. Typical signs of complete AVB include fatigue, lethargy and syncope- Morgagni-adams-stokes syndrome (MAS). The authors present their results and experience with 5 patients selected from a long-term study (conducted between 1987 and 1998) comprising 58 patients who developed MAS. The authors tried to evaluate the changes especially in the cardiovascular system. They correlated the clinical state with ECG findings, as well as with the levels of the borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The following results were obtained: 1) all patients had typical syncope, 2) the clinical course was not complicated (except one patient who developed ventricular fibrillation), 3) two patients had frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic arrhythmia including chest pain and episodic rest dyspnea, 4) subjective difficulties (usually palpitations) correlated with ECG findings (Lown 3a, 3b). The authors also looked for any relationship between clinical difficulties and levels of antibodies. The results obtained with an early permanent pacemaker were less favourable than those reported in the literature. Despite early treatment 2 patients had repeated palpitations and ECG correlates during the next years.
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5/95. atrioventricular block in a toxic child: do not forget diphtheria.

    We describe a 4.5-year-old girl who presented with severe febrile throat infection and who, after a few days, developed ventricular tachycardia followed by atrioventricular block. Although a pacemaker was inserted, she died of cardiogenic shock. Throat cultures were positive for corynebacterium diphtheriae.
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6/95. recurrence of myocarditis presenting as pacing and sensing failure after implantation of a permanent pacemaker at first onset.

    A 31-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and generalized convulsions. electrocardiography (ECG) showed complete atrioventricular block (AV block) with a pulse rate of 30 beats/min. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle showed massive necrosis and degeneration of myocardial cells with extensive infiltration of lymphocytes into the interstitial space. These pathological findings suggested fulminant myocarditis. Following glucocorticoid therapy, the patient became asymptomatic, but the AV block did not resolve completely and a bifocal pacemaker was implanted. However, similar symptoms recurred 7 years later. An ECG showed pacing and sensing failure linked to an increase in the pacing threshold and a decrease in the sensing threshold. Endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle again showed interstitial infiltration with lymphocytes and eosinophils. After glucocorticoid therapy, she became asymptomatic once more, and the improvement in the pacing and sensing failure, and cardiomegaly, was satisfactory. This patient represents a very rare case of recurrence of acute myocarditis without progression, as much as 7 years after its first occurrence. Glucocorticoid therapy was still effective in treating the recurrent myocarditis presenting with pacing and sensing failure.
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7/95. Clinical manifestations of influenza a myocarditis during the influenza epidemic of winter 1998-1999.

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical features of myocarditis that developed during the influenza epidemic of winter 1998-1999 were investigated to emphasize the need for medical attention to this disease. methods: Nine patients were treated under diagnoses of acute myocarditis during the winter of 1998-1999. Five (two males and three females, mean age 52 /- 18 years) were examined with myocarditis associated with influenza A. The diagnosis of influenza A myocarditis was based on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities, increased creatine kinase levels and at least a four-fold increase in influenza a virus titers using paired sera. RESULTS: All patients had preceding flu-like symptoms and fever. Cardiac involvement developed between 4 and 7 days after the onset of influenza symptoms. dyspnea progressively worsened in three patients, one went into shock and one had persistent fever, cough and mild dyspnea without apparent cardiac symptoms. Three patients had ST elevation associated with Q waves and one had complete left bundle branch block. The creatine kinase levels were abnormally increased and global wall motion of the left ventricle on echocardiography was decreased in all patients. Two patients had diagnoses of fulminant myocarditis. One patient died of pneumonia following cerebral infarction, but the left ventricular dysfunction normalized in the remaining four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement occurred between 4 and 7 days after the onset of influenza symptoms, and worsening dyspnea was the most common symptom. electrocardiography, echocardiography and creatine kinase levels should be checked to determine the potential for cardiac involvement when patients present with suspected influenza associated with worsening dyspnea or prolonged weakness. Increasing the awareness of influenza myocarditis may help in the earlier identification and treatment of this disease during influenza epidemics.
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8/95. meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with scrub typhus.

    A 21-year-old male soldier was admitted due to a sore throat, headache, generalized lymphadenopathy and persistent fever for 12 days. Despite empirical antibiotic treatment for four days at a clinic prior to admission, he continued to have persistent abdominal pain over his right upper quadrant region and progressive jaundice was followed by shock. After admission, he developed an episode of clonic seizures and became delirious and agitated. An electrocardiogram showed first degree atrioventricular (AV) block and non-specific ST-T wave changes. Hematological studies revealed thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, abnormal partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and a positive test for D-dimer. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis with white cells of 84/mm3 with a lymphocyte predominance, protein of 97 mg/dL and glucose of 79 mg/dL. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed a fourfold rise in antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in paired serum with IgM antibody titer of 1:640. The patient had a favorable response after parenteral chloramphenicol in addition to oral tetracycline. Early ricognition of scrub typhus and early prescription of anti-rickettsial agents prevent complications of central nervous system involvement and further deterioration of cardiac and hematological function.
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9/95. Intravenous gamma-globulin therapy in myocarditis complicated with complete heart block: Report of one case.

    myocarditis complicated with complete heart block is rare in childhood. We report a case of 4-year-old child presented with complete heart block which may have been caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae. Under emergent temporal pacing, patient experienced cardiogenic shock with pulmonary edema eventually. The cardiopulmonary function was improved with atrial rhythm at the 6th hour later after intravenous infusion with high-dose gamma-globulin (IVIG). The IVIG therapy may have immunomodulatory effects and serve as a potential adjunctive therapy for fulminant myocarditis.
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10/95. Reversible infra-Hisian atrioventricular block in acute myocarditis.

    Symptomatic second- or third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block at any anatomical level is a class I indication for permanent pacemaker implantation. We describe a 44-year-old male with acute viral myocarditis who suffered from syncope followed by a seizure attack associated with AV conduction disturbance. His initial electrocardiogram in our emergency room revealed sinus tachycardia with 2:1 AV conduction and a right bundle branch block QRS morphology with a ventricular rate of 60 beats/min. Because of episodic slowing of the heart rate below 40 beats/min, he received 1 mg atropine intravenously which increased the atrial rate but further worsened the AV conduction, resulting in ventricular asystole for more than 30 seconds associated with loss of consciousness and seizure-like activity. He was immediately paced transcutaneously and transferred to the catheterization laboratory to receive temporary transvenous cardiac pacing. The cardiac catheterization study showed a normal coronary angiogram and very mild diffuse hypokinesis. Electrophysiological studies revealed advanced infra-Hisian AV block. The infra-Hisian AV block, however, resolved rapidly in 2 days. The patient did not receive a permanent pacemaker and remained asymptomatic with normal electrocardiogram over 1 year of follow-up. We suggest that symptomatic infra-Hisian AV block due to viral myocarditis can be reversible, and implantation of a permanent pacemaker may not be necessary.
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