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1/11. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies syndrome (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) with mental disorder: report of two cases.

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare condition within the progressive myoclonic epilepsies syndrome (PME), with a triad of action myoclonus, grand mal seizure and severe cerebellar ataxia. There are few reports about the psychiatric disturbances associated with PME or RHS. The present study examines the evidence that RHS may accompany an organic mental syndrome, ethanol's effective suppression of myoclonus, and the possible resultant problem of alcohol dependence in RHS patients. Two brothers with the previous long-standing diagnosis of RHS and their mental symptoms of persecutory delusion and depression are reported, as well as the additional problem of alcohol dependence in one of them. The cerebellar dysfunction found in RHS may be associated with an underlying organic condition. Determination of the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and psychosis in RHS will require further study. Although the mechanism of the suppression of myoclonus by alcohol remains unclear, patients should be allowed to drink socially, and alcohol consumption should not be totally prohibited. However, effective treatment of the problems of alcohol tolerance, abuse, or dependence requires the cooperation of both neurologists and psychiatrists.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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2/11. An established case of dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) with unusual features on muscle biopsy.

    Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) belongs to the group of autosomal dominant ataxias. central nervous system pathology and inheritance are both well characterized, although the illness is rare. The presentation of a European child affected by this illness is described. He presented at 9 years of age with intractable progressive myoclonus epilepsy against a background of learning difficulties and developed progressive hypertonicity and dementia before his death at 15 years of age. Significant histological changes in a muscle biopsy were found. There was an absence of type IIB fibres and a predominance of type I fibres. Mean fibre diameter of all the fibre types was markedly reduced. All type I fibres showed an increase in lipid droplets. No previous descriptions exist of muscle histology in DRPLA. Although at least five adult family members have symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DRPLA, their condition had not been recognized. We therefore describe the clinical picture and histological findings.
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ranking = 0.24283537087289
keywords = ataxia
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3/11. Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy in Chinese.

    BACKGROUND: Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by a range of clinical manifestations, including cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, myoclonus, choreoathetosis, and dementia. Outside the Japanese population, the prevalence is extremely low worldwide. The reason for different ethnic prevalences of DRPLA is unclear. A previous assumption was that large normal alleles contribute to generation of expanded alleles and the relative frequencies of DRPLA. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical, radiological, and genetic features of the first reported Chinese family with DRPLA, to our knowledge, and to compare the size distribution of normal alleles at the DRPLA locus in healthy Chinese individuals with that of other ethnic groups. patients AND methods: Of 80 Chinese kindreds with autosomally dominant spinocerebellar ataxias, 1 pedigree with 2 affected patients was found by polymerase chain reaction to carry the characteristic DRPLA mutation. The allele frequencies of different CAG repeat lengths at the DRPLA locus in 225 healthy Chinese individuals were also analyzed and compared with Japanese, white, and African American distributions. RESULTS: The clinical presentations of the 2 Chinese patients affected with DRPLA are similar to those described in Japanese patients, except that the affected father exhibited myoclonus but not chorea. Although the normal DRPLA allele size is distributed similarly in Chinese and Japanese populations, DRPLA in Chinese individuals is rare. Thus far, to our knowledge, only 1 intermediate-sized allele containing more than 30 CAG repeats has been reported among healthy Chinese individuals, in contrast to 3 among Japanese populations. CONCLUSION: The ethnic prevalence of DRPLA seems to be correlated with the prevalence of intermediate-sized alleles in individual populations.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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4/11. Juvenile dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy: new clinical features.

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy is a rare autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the atrophin-1 gene on chromosome 12. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy is characterized clinically by prominent anticipation and a wide variety of symptoms that depend on age of onset and number of trinucleotide repeats. The juvenile type of dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, like Huntington's disease, is most commonly inherited via paternal transmission of the gene and most frequently presents with early-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy with mental retardation and ataxia. We present six affected individuals with dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy from a black family living in north america. This pedigree includes two severe juvenile-onset cases, one of maternal transmission and the other of paternal transmission. Both cases of juvenile-onset disease presented with autistic features and seizures. Interestingly, cranial magnetic resonance imaging performed on the more affected child revealed only mild cerebellar atrophy. The present family expands the clinical description of juvenile-onset dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and emphasizes the importance of considering dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy in children with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.
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ranking = 0.24283537087289
keywords = ataxia
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5/11. Corneal endothelial degeneration in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.

    BACKGROUND: Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration that exhibits a variety of neurologic manifestations. However, only a few reports have studied disturbances outside the central nervous system. We described 2 unrelated patients with DRPLA accompanied by corneal endothelial degeneration. patients AND methods: A 52-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia and dementia. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cerebellar atrophy. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy was diagnosed because of the detection of expansion of CAG repeats at the DRPLA locus. On admission, his visual acuity was severely impaired. Specular microscopy showed decreased endothelial cell density (500 cells/mm(2)) compared with that of healthy subjects. The second patient was a 69-year-old man with cerebellar ataxia. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy. The diagnosis of DRPLA was based on expanded CAG repeats of the DRPLA gene. Specular microscopy showed significant decrease of endothelial cell density (1506 cells/mm(2)). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed DRPLA gene expression in corneal endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Mutant DRPLA protein may be directly associated with corneal endothelial degeneration. corneal endothelial cell loss is an important sign of DRPLA, and the corneas of patients with DRPLA should be examined.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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6/11. Late onset ataxia phenotype in dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA).

    ABSTRACT We clinically and genetically studied three patients in a family with dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). The proband patient had 58/24 CAG repeat alleles of the DRPLA gene (normal < or = 34 repeats). Cerebellar ataxia first developed in the 6-7th decades and was the predominant feature for more than 10 years in all three, after which two of them manifested dementia and choreiform movements in the advanced stage. atrophy of the cerebellum and brain stem an CT or MRI had suggested dominant spinocerebellar ataxia as a diagnosis in their ataxia-predominant stage, with a diagnosis of DRPLA being impossible based on the clinical findings alone. Our experience implies that DRPLA must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of late onset ataxic disorders, since it can easily be overlooked.
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ranking = 2.4570122252373
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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7/11. head tremor in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by variable combination of clinical manifestations including ataxia, myoclonus, seizures, dementia, and choreic movements. head tremor has been rarely reported. We report a 66-year-old-woman with genetically determined DRPLA who presented with head tremor. A "no-no" type head tremor was the initial and the most prominent symptom, and mild cerebellar signs and choreic movements were also observed later. Neither hand tremor nor dystonia was noted. The patient did not show dementia, myoclonus, or seizures. Surface electromyogram (EMG) revealed 3.5-4 Hz rhythmic EMG bursts in both sternocleidomastoid muscles. dna analysis disclosed expanded trinucleotide repeats (n = 54) in the DRPLA gene. We suggest that isolated head tremor can be a clinical manifestation of DRPLA.
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ranking = 0.24283537087289
keywords = ataxia
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8/11. Cervical dystonia in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by variable clinical phenotypes. Its characteristic clinical manifestations include ataxia, choreoathetotic movements, seizures, myoclonus and dementia, but cervical dystonia has been rarely reported. Here we report a family with DRPLA who presented with cervical dystonia. The proband was a 66-year-old woman. Cervical dystonia was the initial and the most prominent symptom, and mild cerebellar signs and choreic movements were also observed. dna analysis revealed expanded trinucleotide repeats within the DRPLA gene. The daughter of the proband, a 29-year-old woman, also had cervical dystonia for 3 years. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a mild atrophy of the brainstem and the cerebellum in both of these patients. DRPLA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with cervical dystonia.
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ranking = 0.24283537087289
keywords = ataxia
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9/11. Corneal endothelial changes as a clinical diagnostic indicator of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a rare case of patient diagnosed with dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) accompanied by corneal endothelial cell loss. methods: A 37-year-old man with choreoathetoid movement and cerebellar ataxia was diagnosed with DRPLA based on a dna analysis compared with that of healthy control subjects. We examined the best corrected visual acuity, color vision, light reflex, topography, corneal thickness, fundus, fluorescein angiograpic findings, the visual field, ERG, specular microscopy as well as MRI and serologic tests. RESULTS: The best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes by Snellen chart, and the other ocular findings were within normal limits except for a significantly decreased corneal endothelial cell density, 876 cells/mm in the right eye and 941 cells/mm in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS: A patient with neurodegenerative disorders such as choreathetoid movement, myoclonic seizure, cerebellar ataxia, and dementia should be examined specifically by specular microscopy because corneal endothelial cell loss is the only clinical diagnostic indicator of DRPLA.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebellar ataxia, ataxia
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10/11. Severe cerebral white matter involvement in a case of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy studied at autopsy.

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of white matter involvement in dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is controversial. Moreover, the clinical repercussions and evolution of these lesions have not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of DRPLA with severe cerebellar white matter involvement. DESIGN: Case report.Patient A 62-year-old woman with DRPLA. RESULTS: When the genetic diagnosis was made, the patient manifested severe ataxia, slight dysarthria, and subcortical cognitive impairment. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem and moderate high-intensity signal alterations in the periventricular cerebral white matter in T2-weighted sequences. In the following 5 years, she developed uncontrolled head movements associated with severe bruxism and tetraparesis, and became deeply demented. New magnetic resonance imaging showed severe diffuse cerebral white matter alterations in T2 sequences with only slight progression of brainstem and cerebellar atrophy. After her death at 67 years of age, the autopsy study showed diffuse myelin pallor, axonal preservation, and reactive astrogliosis in the cerebral white matter, with only mild atherosclerotic changes, and moderate neuronal loss in the cerebellum and brainstem. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoencephalopathy could be a prominent finding in some patients with DRPLA, explaining, at least in part, their clinical evolution. In our case, the disproportion between the severity of white matter damage and vascular changes does not support a cardinal role for ischemic mechanisms in leukoencephalopathy.
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ranking = 0.24283537087289
keywords = ataxia
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