Cases reported "Myoclonus"

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1/74. Idiopathic cortical myoclonus restricted to the lower limbs: correlation between MEPs and 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography activation study.

    We report a 63-year-old woman with cortical reflex myoclonus restricted to the bilateral lower limbs. Somatosensory evoked cortical potentials to posterior tibial nerve stimulation were enlarged with C-responses. Jerk-locked back averaging of the EEG identified a cortical spike related to myoclonic jerks. Motor evoked potentials recorded from the abductor hallucis muscle showed an exaggerated late response. These findings suggest hyperexcitability of the sensorimotor cortex. 99mTc-ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve showed increased perfusion in the contralateral peri-Rolandic area which corresponded to the hyperexcitable region. A SPECT activation study as well as MEPs therefore can be employed to determine the hyperexcitable region in cortical myoclonus.
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2/74. Facial reflex myoclonus induced by language: a neuropsychological and neurophysiological study.

    We studied a 53 year old right-handed patient who presented isolated myoclonus of right facial muscles induced exclusively by language. Twitching significantly hindered speaking and reading performance. MRI and CT-scan revealed no brain lesion. Conventional EEG showed a few spike-waves predominantly in the left hemisphere. Spike-waves increased during drowsiness. An EEG-EMG polygraphic study was performed during stimulation tests which included linguistic tasks and non-verbal/non-linguistic tests. myoclonus was triggered by speaking and writing but not by non-linguistic tasks. The severity of myoclonus was dependent on the complexity of the language task. back-averaging of right facial EMG bursts failed to show a reliable EEG-EMG correlation. However, the facial reflex myoclonus might have originated from the left rolandicopercular cortex, as it was triggered by complex language activities. Findings in this case are compared with those reported for other forms of reflex seizure and myoclonus.
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3/74. Cortical reflex myoclonus studied with cortical electrodes.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of cortical reflex myoclonus. methods: A patient with stimulus sensitive myoclonus of the left foot had an array of subdural electrodes placed over the right sensorimotor cortex. RESULTS: Stimulation through one of the electrodes (contact 13) facilitated leg muscles with the shortest latency and was presumed to lie over the motor cortex. tibial nerve stimulation evoked a potential with the shortest latency 1 cm further posteriorly (contacts 11-12). These contacts were presumed to lie over the sensory cortex. The potential at 11-12 was followed by a much larger potential that reversed polarity at contact 13. back averaging from spontaneous myoclonic jerks showed a cortical premovement potential which reversed polarity at contact 13. The threshold for the motor evoked potential in leg muscles evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation was lower on the affected side. Electrical stimulation through contact 13 produced cortical potentials that could be recorded at adjacent contacts. The combination of a positive potential followed by a negative potential recurred at approximately 35-40 ms intervals, each positive potential generating a myoclonic jerk. Additional waves resembling I waves accompanied only the first positive potential. Surgical removal of the cortex under electrode 13 abolished the myoclonus. CONCLUSIONS: The myoclonic jerks arose in the motor cortex. We postulate that there is increased excitability or synchronization of the cortical neurons at that site. The spontaneous, peripherally induced and recurrent cortical potentials and myoclonic jerks can occur without participation of the circuitry of the presumed I waves.
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4/74. Giant visually-evoked potentials without myoclonus in the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

    In a 64-year old woman with progressive visual impairment for 4 weeks, probable Creutzfeld-Jakob disease without myoclonus was diagnosed after rapidly progressive mental deterioration had also developed, and CSF and EEG showed characteristic findings. Pattern-reversal and flash visually-evoked potentials, recorded 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks after onset, showed a maximum P100 latency of 210 ms, 8 weeks after onset, and a maximum N75/P100 amplitude of 33.1 microV, 5 weeks after onset. While the P100 latency progressively increased, the N75/P100 amplitude continuously decreased after reaching its maximum. In the Heidenhain type of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease giant visually-evoked potentials may be recorded during the early stages of the disease, even in the absence of myoclonus. Visually-evoked potentials may prove useful in diagnosing Creutzfeld-Jakob disease with atypical initial presentation.
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keywords = visual
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5/74. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. BACKGROUND: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve the cerebellar system, but there has only been one report of cerebellar pathology in a patient in whom cortical myoclonus was physiologically characterized antemortem. methods: Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded and EEG activity was averaged preceding myoclonic electromyographic activity. In one patient cortico-cortical inhibition was tested using two paired ipsilateral magnetic stimuli over the motor strip. Neuropathologic examination was carried out, including linear Purkinje cell densities/millimeter calculations for different regions of the cerebellum. RESULTS: The electrophysiology showed evidence of dysfunction of the sensorimotor cortex with enlarged SEPs and a time-locked cortical potential preceding the action myoclonus. In addition, motor cortical inhibition was abnormal in one case. pathology showed unremarkable primary sensory, motor, and premotor cerebral cortices, except for unilateral gliosis of the motor cortex in one case. The cerebellum showed patchy atrophy and ongoing degeneration. A striking feature was the greater severity of Purkinje cell loss and Bergmann gliosis in the outer aspects than in the depths of the folia. CONCLUSIONS: Pathologic abnormalities are paradoxically mainly located in the cerebellum in some patients with cortical myoclonus, despite clear electrophysiologic evidence of cortical dysfunction. This observation suggests that enhanced excitability of the sensorimotor cortex may arise as a distant effect of cerebellar pathology.
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6/74. Asymmetry of cortical excitability revealed by transcranial stimulation in a patient with focal motor epilepsy and cortical myoclonus.

    motor cortex excitability was analyzed with transcranial stimulation in a patient with motor focal epilepsy and cortical myoclonus originating from the right motor cortex. The motor threshold to single transcranial magnetic shocks, but not to electric stimuli, was higher in the epileptic motor cortex than the normal left motor cortex. Single magnetic shocks elicited a short cortical silent period (50 ms) in the epileptic motor cortex. Paired magnetic stimuli also showed reduced cortico-cortical inhibition. These findings reveal an asymmetry in cortical excitability presumably due to impaired inhibition in the epileptic motor cortex.
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7/74. Phase relationships between cortical and muscle oscillations in cortical myoclonus: electrocorticographic assessment in a single case.

    AIM: To compare voluntary- and sensory-induced myoclonic jerks using spectral analysis in a subject with cortical myoclonus. methods: The coherence, phase and cumulant density estimates were calculated between right electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals and distal left leg muscles in a patient with subdural electrodes inserted over the right sensorimotor cortex. RESULTS: Significant coherence between sensorimotor cortex and muscle was found up to 60 Hz during voluntary induced myoclonic jerks. Additional higher frequency coherence ( approximately 140 and 190 Hz) was found during sensory-induced myoclonic jerks. The cortical signals phase led muscle signals at frequencies >15 Hz by delays consistent with transmission along corticospinal pathways. Below 15 Hz the cortex phase lagged the muscle signals. Polarity reversal of the cumulant density estimate and the ECoG site demonstrating the highest coherence helped to localize the site of the abnormal oscillatory activity to the leg area of the motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Oscillations of different frequencies can co-exist at a given location and can both phase lead and lag contralateral muscle. This has implications for cortex-muscle latency measures calculated by back-averaging techniques.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cortex
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8/74. Disinhibition of somatosensory and motor cortex in mitochondriopathy without myoclonus.

    OBJECTIVE: To test electrophysiologically, if patients with mitochondriopathy but without evidence of myocloni have subclinical signs of disinhibition in motor and somatosensory cortices. methods: Two patients were studied and compared with age-matched control groups. RESULTS: In both patients, giant somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve stimulation and a reduced intracortical inhibition tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation in a paired pulse paradigm indicated a dysfunction of inhibitory circuits in the motor as well as the somatosensory cortex. In addition, the somatosensory evoked 600 Hz activity recorded by magnetoencephalography was abolished. CONCLUSIONS: patients with mitochondriopathy may suffer from a subclinical disturbance of inhibition in the sensorimotor cortex. The loss of 600 Hz activity indicates that these high-frequency oscillations could reflect the activity of inhibitory neurons in the somatosensory cortex.
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keywords = cortex
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9/74. lightning eye movements.

    Physiologic studies were performed on a patient who demonstrated lightning eye movements, palatal myoclonus and myoclonic jerks of the left platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles. The myoclonus and lightning eye movements were separate phenomena with no defined relationship to each other. Analysis of this ocular dyskinesia identified strictly horizontal saccadic oscillations, 2 to 5 Hz in frequency, with amplitudes varying greatly but often reaching 25 degrees. A brief stationary period between each saccadic oscillation was frequently observed. They were particularly induced by vertical or horizontal ocular pursuit as well as sustained upward or downward ocular deviation. Caloric nystagmus abolished the oscillations but they persisted, irregularly, during optokinetic nystagmus. Thus a faulty visual fixation mechanism is postulated to precipitate lightning eye movements. Constrast studies revealed a mass lesion arising from the right dorsolateral portion of the medulla. These results indicate that lightning eye movements occur with caudal as well as rostral brain-stem lesions. From the clinical findings cerebellar pathway involvement is likely.
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ranking = 0.014212230231398
keywords = visual
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10/74. Cortical activity-associated negative myoclonus.

    A patient with myoclonus epilepsy had 2 types of negative myoclonus as well as positive myoclonus at rest. One type followed a large EMG discharge at the end of continuous contraction and the other did not. Both types of negative myoclonus and positive myoclonus were preceded by EEG activity, predominantly distributed in the contralateral central region. It is suggested that an abnormal activity around the motor cortex suppresses a voluntary contraction as well as induces myoclonus. clonazepam was markedly effective on both positive and negative myoclonus.
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