Cases reported "Myoglobinuria"

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1/6. Respiratory chain deficiency presenting as recurrent myoglobinuria in childhood.

    myoglobinuria is an abnormal urinary excretion of myoglobin due to an acute destruction of skeletal muscle fibres. Several metabolic diseases are known to account for myoglobinuria including defects of glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Here, we report on respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in three unrelated children with recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria and muscle weakness (complex I: one patient, complex IV: two patients). All three patients had generalized hyporeflexia during attacks, a feature which is not commonly reported in other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Studying respiratory chain enzyme activities in cultured skin fibroblasts might help diagnosing this condition, especially when acute rhabdomyolysis precludes skeletal muscle biopsy during and immediately after episodes of myoglobinuria.
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keywords = glycolysis
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2/6. Muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency (Tarui's disease): report of a case.

    A 14-year-old girl had an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis after vigorous exercise and seizures. Laboratory studies revealed elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and myoglobinuria without acute renal failure, as well as mild indirect hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperuricemia. The elevated CPK activity, mild indirect hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperuricemia persisted during a 10-month follow-up period, during which chronic hemolysis without overt anemia was also noted. A muscle biopsy specimen from the left biceps muscle revealed occasional muscle fiber necrosis and mild excess of glycogen accumulation on periodic acid-Schiff staining. Histochemical reactions were negative with phosphofructokinase (PFK) stain when fructose-6-phosphate was used as the substrate, but positive when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was used as the substrate. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of muscle PFK deficiency (Tarui's disease), which is a defect of glycolysis in muscles and erythrocytes. Less than 40 such patients have been reported to date. When a specific metabolic myopathy is suspected in children with rhabdomyolysis, symptoms of hemolysis should also be sought to identify Tarui's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Tarui's disease identified in taiwan.
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keywords = glycolysis
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3/6. Lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency: a new type of hereditary exertional myopathy.

    Three families with a complete deficiency of the lactate dehydrogenase M subunit show exertional myoglobinuria. The response to ischemic forearm work is characteristic in these three families: an increase of venous lactate concentration after ischemic work was not observed and a marked increase of venous pyruvate was found. glycolysis was markedly retarded in the patient's muscle in the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) step. A significant increases in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate were observed. The glycolysis retardation may be attributed to the impaired reoxidation of NADH produced by GA3PD action. The cytosolic fraction of skeletal muscle is rich in alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. This enzyme reoxidizes the excess NADH and drains triose phosphates from the glycolytic pathway under anaerobic conditions. For this reason, ATP production was significantly impaired and muscle cells were damaged in these patients. Consequently, the cytosolic enzymes and proteins such as creatine kinase and myoglobin were released into the blood stream. Otherwise, patients with a lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency do not show muscle stiffness and myoglobinuria under ordinary circumstances. They complain of muscle rigidity and sudden myoglobinuria after strenous exercise under anaerobic conditions. Thus, the lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency does not show any symptoms under ordinary circumstances, but is a latent hereditary disorder, now recognized as a new type of hereditary exertional myoglobinuria.
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keywords = glycolysis
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4/6. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency: a second case.

    Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity was markedly decreased (6% of the normal mean) in a 17-year-old girl with recurrent myoglobinuria after intense exercise. Muscle biopsy showed increased PAS stain; glycogen concentration was twice normal. Studies of anaerobic glycolysis in vitro showed decreased lactate production with glycogen, and with all hexose phosphate glycolytic intermediates, which was corrected by addition of purified PGAM to the reaction mixtures. A defect of the M subunit of PGAM was documented by electrophoretic, heat lability, and mercury inhibition studies. Intermediate PGAM activities (39 and 50% of normal) were found in muscle biopsies from the patient's asymptomatic parents. These data confirm the clinical, morphologic, and biochemical features described in the first patient with PGAM deficiency and suggest autosomal-recessive transmission of the trait.
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keywords = glycolysis
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5/6. Combined partial deficiency of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine with autosomal dominant inheritance.

    The authors studied a 53 year old woman and her 22 year old son with episodes of paroxysmal muscle cramps and dark urines lasting several hours related to high fat diet and strenuous physical exercise beginning on both at age 14 years. The father, paternal uncle, paternal grandfather and another son of the mother also had paroxysmal muscle cramps. The two studied cases showed normal findings for physical evaluation, blood lactate after ischemic exercise, and muscle histology (light and electron microscopy). The serum creatine kinase was elevated in the son and normal in the mother. However, 72 hour fasting significantly raised the serum creatine kinase level in both cases. plasma concentration of ketone bodies and acid soluble acyl-carnitine increased normally with prolonged fasting. The biochemical evaluation of the muscle tissue revealed intact anaerobic glycolysis and normal glycogen content but combined partial deficiency of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine in both cases.
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keywords = glycolysis
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6/6. Lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiencies: clinical features, metabolic background, and genetic heterogeneities.

    Lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency was first reported 1980 as an exertional myoglobinuria. Since then, 6 Japanese and 3 Caucasian families have been reported. Also, typical skin lesions were observed in 1 Japanese patient. Since then, 2 families, one Japanese and one Caucasian, have been found with this typical skin eruption. The metabolic background of exertional myoglobinuria was demonstrated as a result of the impaired reoxidation of NADH produced by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G3PD) action. The excess NADH was partly reoxidized by the action of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase abundant in cytosolic fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme reoxidizes excess NADH simultaneously draining out triose phosphate from the glycolytic pathway. Abortive glycolysis results in impaired ATP production followed by rhabdomyolysis. Genomic analysis revealed the heterogeneities of the mutations of this disease.
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keywords = glycolysis
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