Cases reported "Myotonic Disorders"

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1/3. Proximal myotonic myopathy: clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings in a family.

    Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by proximal weakness, myotonia, muscle pain and cataract. It resembles Steinert myotonic dystrophy (MD), but weakness is proximal, without facial muscle involvement, and the chromosome 19 CTG trinucleotide repeat expansion characteristic of MD is not present. We describe a further family with PROMM. Affected members complained of weakness of lower limbs or of myotonia. EMG revealed diffuse myotonic discharges. Muscle histology showed dystrophic abnormalities. The PROMM phenotype varies, even in the same pedigree, and may mimic MD or limb-girdle muscle dystrophy. EMG is particularly useful, since it may disclose myotonic discharges even in the absence of overt myotonia. Thus far it is not known whether PROMM is a single entity, or if it represents a heterogeneous group of disorders. This question will probably soon be settled through genetic analysis.
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2/3. colchicine-induced myopathy with myotonia in a patient with chronic renal failure.

    Although colchicine induced myopathy has been described in patients with chronic renal failure, colchicine induced myopathy with myotonia has been reported very rarely. A 49-year-old man with chronic renal failure was hospitalised for investigation of fatigue, malaise and severe pain in all extremities. He was on colchicine therapy for 5 months. Neurological examination showed mildly decreased sensation in a distal symmetric pattern in lower extremities, moderate proximal limb weakness, hyporeflexia and severe myalgia on palpation. No clinical evidence of myotonia was present. Laboratory studies showed elevated creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Electromyographic (EMG) findings were compatible with myopathy and abundant, widespread myotonic discharges were determined. Muscle biopsy was consistent with vacuolar myopathy. After withdrawal of colchicine, CK, LDH, AST and ALT levels were normalised and the symptoms were disappeared gradually. In conclusion, the detection of myopathic motor unit potentials with myotonic discharges on EMG in patients on colchicine therapy is an important finding and it is possible to suggest that this clue may lead to the invasive procedure of muscle biopsy unnecessary.
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keywords = limb
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3/3. A new case of autosomal dominant myotonia associated with the V1589M missense mutation in the muscle sodium channel gene and its phenotypic classification.

    We report a phenotype associated with the Val1589Met substitution in SCN4A gene in a French family which would be better classified as paramyotonia congenita. The proband was a 48-year-old woman, who described muscle stiffness and occasional flaccid weakness, both symptoms being induced by exercise, cold and heat. Severe muscle stiffness affected facial, oropharyngeal and limb muscles leading to transient paralysis of these muscles. One sister, two nephews and the son of the proband had similar symptoms. Molecular analysis of the muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) by nucleotide sequencing revealed a G-to-A transition of cDNA nucleotide at position 4765 predicting a substitution of methionine for valine at position 1589. This shows that the Val1589Met mutation in the SCN4 gene may cause different phenotypes, either potassium-aggravated myotonia or paramyotonia congenita. Familial or individual factors other than the missense mutation per se influence the expression of the disease in sodium channel disorders.
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