Cases reported "Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms"

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1/166. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: report of seven cases.

    Cases of hyperfractionated radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer are reported. Seven patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy (76.8-81.6 Gy/64-68 fractions to primary tumor) and two cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1) plus 5-FU (800 mg/m2 continuous infusion on days 2-6). mucositis was the most frequent side effect in hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Moderate leukopenia was the major side effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a mean follow-up time of 34 months (range 25-48 months), five of the seven patients were locoregionally controlled. Two developed distant metastases. Two patients suffered late complications (posterior nasopharyngeal wall necrosis and brain necrosis). These results suggested that our regimen was almost well tolerated and might be of use in locoregional control of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, it carries some risk of late complications and might be inadequate for preventing distant metastases. A three-dimensional conformal boost irradiation technique and adequate dose intensity chemotherapy might be encouraged.
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2/166. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer: report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: This article reports on experience with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer. methods: Three patients with locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer were given FSRT as reirradiation between September 1995 and August 1996. Application of FSRT was the third radiation therapy in two patients. Authors used the individually made relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) stereotactic frame, and the radiation dose planning was performed using XKnife-3. The total doses to the recurrent tumor were 45 Gy/18 fractions in two patients, who were given concurrent chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and 50 Gy/20 fractions in the other patient. In all three patients the dose per fraction was 2.5 Gy, and the fraction schedule was to give five daily treatments per week. RESULTS: Authors observed satisfactory symptomatic improvement and remarkable objective tumor size decrease through the magnetic resonance (MR) images taken one month post-FSRT in all three patients. No neurological side effect was observed. All three patients died with regional and distant seeding outside the FSRT field at seven, nine, and nine months, respectively. CONCLUSION: FSRT as reirradiation for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer seemed to be effective and safe.
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3/166. temporal bone tumours in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm.

    radiation-associated tumours are rare complications of radiotherapy. This study seeks to highlight and discuss the clinically challenging problem of radiation-associated tumours (rats) in the temporal bones of seven patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm. Seven patients (six males and one female) with radiation-associated temporal bone tumours are presented (five squamous cell carcinomas, one osteogenic sarcoma and one chondrosarcoma). The initial nasopharyngeal disease for which radiotherapy was indicated was nasopharyngeal carcinoma (six patients) and nasopharyngeal lymphoma (one patient). The latency period between radiotherapy and presentation of temporal bone tumours ranged from five years to 30 years with a mean of 12.9 years. All the patients underwent surgical tumour resection. Three patients had post-operative radiotherapy and one patient underwent pre- and post-operative chemotherapy. Two patients died from the disease within three months of treatment with one patient surviving 36 months at the time of writing. One patient died from an unrelated medical condition three months after surgery. With refinement in radiotherapy techniques and the resultant increase in patient survival, there may be more patients with radiation-associated tumours in the future. It remains imperative for clinicians to be vigilant when patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with otological symptoms as the key to the successful management of this condition lies in the early detection and expedient treatment of this difficult disease.
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4/166. De novo systemic sclerosis after radiotherapy: a report of 3 cases.

    We describe 3 patients in whom the onset of systemic scleroderma occurred shortly after ionizing irradiation for nasopharyngeal or breast carcinoma. This relationship has been described rarely as has the exacerbation of a preexisting scleroderma after irradiation. This gives indications for direction of studies.
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5/166. Spontaneous epidural haematoma associated with radiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    We report a case of spontaneous epidural haemorrhage associated with metastatic radiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the dural meninges in a patient who had been previously treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy.
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6/166. Re-irradiation for recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx in a child.

    There are few clinical situations where high dose re-irradiation with curative intent is indicated in children. Because of the potential for serious late sequelae, re-irradiation is considered only in the unusual situation where there is just local recurrence and surgery and/or chemotherapy are unlikely to provide long-term control. The authors present a case of nasopharynx rhabdomyosarcoma in a child which recurred after high dose irradiation and chemotherapy and was then re-irradiated to a high dose. The child is well without any serious sequelae more than 13 years following completion of the second course of radiotherapy.
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7/166. The role of radiation in delayed hearing loss in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Although radiation damage to the inner ear can be induced experimentally in animals, its incidence in humans as a complication of therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains a matter of conjecture due to inadequate histological validation. A case of advanced NPC with a mixed conductive and neurosensory hearing loss is presented that at necropsy showed tumour invasion of the VIIIth cranial nerve in the internal auditory meatus with associated infection. The architecture of the organ of corti was well-preserved despite heavy doses of radiation but degeneration, the cause of which could not be substantiated, was present in the auditory nerve pathway. A diagnosis of radiation damage to the end-organ of hearing in the absence of supporting histological evidence should be made with caution.
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8/166. Delayed radiation-induced bulbar palsy mimicking ALS.

    We describe a patient presenting with progressive bulbar dysfunction and spasticity that clinically mimicked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). electromyography, however, showed no evidence of denervation and revealed a rare combination of peripheral and central myokymia. We feel that this pattern of myokymia represented a marker of neural injury from remote radiation therapy. nervous system disorders resulting from therapeutic radiation are described, and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying myokymia are discussed.
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9/166. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in Epstein-Barr Virus-associated B cell lymphoma following lung transplantation.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is a complication of bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, mostly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection and chronic immunosuppression. Even if spontaneous resolution after cessation of immunosuppressive therapy can be observed, the prognosis of this disorder is usually poor with a low response to specific treatment. We describe a case of B-cell lymphoma of the nasopharynx occurring 6 months after double-lung transplantation. In spite of its monoclonal nature, anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody given in the presence of reduced immunosuppression resulted in a complete response. The patient also received "consolidation" radiation therapy to prevent the recurrence. The treatment was well tolerated with minimal side effects. The patient was asymptomatic and had a well functioning graft more than 1 year after therapy.
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10/166. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with leptomeningeal dissemination: case report.

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly prevalent malignancy in southeast china, hong kong, and taiwan. Spread of this tumor is known to occur via three main routes, i.e., local invasion of adjacent structures, regional metastasis to neck nodes, and hematogenous metastasis to distant organs. In this report, we describe a rare case of NPC disseminated via the leptomeninges, so called meningeal carcinomatosis (MC). The patient was a 62 year-old man who presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and a headache, and was diagnosed with NPC in August 1988. The primary tumor regressed completely after induction chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Computerized tomography (CT) 17 months after radiation therapy showed multiple enhanced nodules scattered along the temporal meninges. The nodules increased in number and size in the subsequent CT scan 4 months later. The patient declined further invasive procedures and oncologic treatments, and he expired at home 9 months after the development of MC. It is speculated that perineural invasion and access to the subarachnoid space was the major cause of MC in this case. The case, although rare, possibly highlights a rare route of tumor dissemination in NPC.
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