Cases reported "Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms"

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1/185. The blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma arising in Waldeyer's tonsillar ring.

    We present three cases of blastic mantle cell lymphoma with an unusual initial manifestation in Waldeyer's ring with methods for differentiating it from other blastic neoplasms of the head and neck. All cases presented with a feeling of fullness in the area of the mass. Morphologically, the tumours were blastic with a high mitotic rate (three to nine per high power field). All were B-cell phenotype with coexpression of CD43. In all cases cyclin d1 and bcl-2 were positive and CD23 negative. Blastic mantle cell lymphoma occurring in Waldeyer's tonsillar ring may be mistaken for other high grade haematopoietic neoplasms. immunohistochemistry and awareness of this type of lymphoma are helpful in differentiating it from other neoplasms.
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keywords = neoplasm
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2/185. Aggressive giant pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass: magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings.

    We report a giant pituitary adenoma with aggressive histologic features that prominently invaded the nasopharynx. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large heterogeneous nodular mass that was hypointense to isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The mass measured 7.5 x 5 x 7 cm, extending from the nasopharynx posteriorly through the clivus, and superiorly through the paranasal sinuses, and sellar-suprasellar region. After contrast administration, heterogeneous nodular enhancement was noted. A nasopharyngeal neoplasm extending into the sella was suspected because voice change and nasal speech long preceded the patient's visual symptoms. A biopsy disclosed an aggressive, infiltrating, hemorrhagic tumor, which was diagnosed as a non-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. This report indicates that pituitary adenomas may grow invasively to tremendously large sizes resulting in their initial presentation as nasopharyngeal masses.
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keywords = neoplasm
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3/185. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: report of seven cases.

    Cases of hyperfractionated radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer are reported. Seven patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy (76.8-81.6 Gy/64-68 fractions to primary tumor) and two cycles of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1) plus 5-FU (800 mg/m2 continuous infusion on days 2-6). mucositis was the most frequent side effect in hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Moderate leukopenia was the major side effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a mean follow-up time of 34 months (range 25-48 months), five of the seven patients were locoregionally controlled. Two developed distant metastases. Two patients suffered late complications (posterior nasopharyngeal wall necrosis and brain necrosis). These results suggested that our regimen was almost well tolerated and might be of use in locoregional control of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, it carries some risk of late complications and might be inadequate for preventing distant metastases. A three-dimensional conformal boost irradiation technique and adequate dose intensity chemotherapy might be encouraged.
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ranking = 0.37810874907255
keywords = cancer
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4/185. Nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma with cutaneous involvement.

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a third lymphocyte lineage, in addition to B- and T-cells, that mediate cytotoxicity without prior sensitization. NK cells also have phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; they express the NK-related antigen CD56 and T-cell markers such as CD2 and CD3 epsilon, but their T-cell receptor (TCR) locus is not rearranged. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are divided into B- and T-cell neoplasms and NK-cell lymphomas. We describe 2 Japanese patients with nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma in which the skin, nasal/nasopharyngeal region, bone marrow, and lymph node were the sites of involvement. The clinical and histopathologic findings were recorded. In addition, immunophenotyping, TCR gene rearrangement, and the existence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) dna by polymerase chain reaction amplification were determined. Clinically, the cutaneous eruptions were purplish, hard, multiple nodules. Histologically, angiocentric proliferation of small-to medium-sized, pleomorphic, lymphoid cells were observed. They revealed hand-mirror-shaped lymphocytes with azurophilic granules with the use of Giemsa staining by touch smear. These lymphocytes were found to be positive to immunophenotyping for CD2 (Leu5b), CD3 epsilon (DAKO), CD4 (Leu3a), and CD56 (Leu 19). No clonal rearrangement of TCR-beta, -gamma, and -delta genes and immunoglobulin gene markers were found, and no positive results of identification of EBV dna were shown. The patients underwent cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy with complete remission; however, both had recurrence of disease. Because NK-cell lymphomas express some T-cell markers, they may be mistakenly diagnosed as peripheral T-cell lymphomas if they are not investigated for the NK-cell-specific marker, CD56. Therefore the importance of immunophenotypic investigations of CD56 should be stressed. Also, the importance of clinical investigation of nasal/nasopharyngeal lymphomas should be stressed when NK-cell lymphoma is diagnosed involving the skin, because NK-cell lymphomas are often associated with the nasal and nasopharyngeal region.
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keywords = neoplasm
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5/185. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer: report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: This article reports on experience with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer. methods: Three patients with locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer were given FSRT as reirradiation between September 1995 and August 1996. Application of FSRT was the third radiation therapy in two patients. Authors used the individually made relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) stereotactic frame, and the radiation dose planning was performed using XKnife-3. The total doses to the recurrent tumor were 45 Gy/18 fractions in two patients, who were given concurrent chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and 50 Gy/20 fractions in the other patient. In all three patients the dose per fraction was 2.5 Gy, and the fraction schedule was to give five daily treatments per week. RESULTS: Authors observed satisfactory symptomatic improvement and remarkable objective tumor size decrease through the magnetic resonance (MR) images taken one month post-FSRT in all three patients. No neurological side effect was observed. All three patients died with regional and distant seeding outside the FSRT field at seven, nine, and nine months, respectively. CONCLUSION: FSRT as reirradiation for locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer seemed to be effective and safe.
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ranking = 0.44112687391797
keywords = cancer
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6/185. Clinical delivery of intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy for relapsed or second-primary head and neck cancer using a multileaf collimator with dynamic control.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concave dose distributions generated by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were applied to re-irradiate three patients with pharyngeal cancer. patients, MATERIALS AND methods: Conventional radiotherapy for oropharyngeal (patients 1 and 3) or nasopharyngeal (patient 2) cancers was followed by relapsing or new tumors in the nasopharynx (patients 1 and 2) and hypopharynx (patient 3). Six non-opposed coplanar intensity modulated beams were generated by combining non-modulated beamparts with intensities (weights) obtained by minimizing a biophysical objective function. Beamparts were delivered by a dynamic MLC (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) forced in step and shoot mode. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Median PTV-doses (and ranges) for the three patients were 73 (65-78), 67 (59-72) and 63 (48-68) Gy. Maximum point doses to brain stem and spinal cord were, respectively, 67 Gy (60% of volume below 30 Gy) and 32 Gy (97% below 10 Gy) for patient 1; 60 Gy (69% below 30 Gy) and 34 Gy (92% below 10 Gy) for patient 2 and 21 Gy (96% below 10 Gy) at spinal cord for patient 3. Maximum point doses to the mandible were 69 Gy for patient 1 and 64 Gy for patient 2 with, respectively, 66 and 92% of the volume below 20 Gy. A treatment session, using the dynamic MLC, was finished within a 15-min time slot.
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ranking = 0.37810874907255
keywords = cancer
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7/185. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the nasal cavity: a case report and review of literature.

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon, low-grade, malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of variable proportions of ductular cells and large, clear staining, myoepithelial cells arranged around the periphery of the ducts. About 120 cases have been reported in the world literature, most of which were located in salivary glands, except for a few cases occurring in unusual locations such as breast, lacrimal gland, nose, paranasal sinus, trachea, bronchus, and lung. We here reported the second case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the nasal cavity with extension to the nasopharynx. The patient was a 61 year old Chinese female with two month's history of progressive nasal obstruction. Histopathologically, the tumor showed typical myoepithelial and ductal cells biphasic differentiation, duct-like structure and infiltrating growth pattern. Some ductal cells showed the characteristics of oxyphilic cell, which had never been reported before. recurrence and metastasis rates of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma varied from 35% to 50% and 8.1% to 25% respectively in different reports. The present case had neither recurrence nor metastasis twenty months after operation. When epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is mainly composed of spindle myoepithelial cells, the differential diagnosis should include myoepithelioma, neurofibroma, leiomyoma and hemangiopericytoma.
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keywords = neoplasm
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8/185. temporal bone tumours in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm.

    radiation-associated tumours are rare complications of radiotherapy. This study seeks to highlight and discuss the clinically challenging problem of radiation-associated tumours (rats) in the temporal bones of seven patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm. Seven patients (six males and one female) with radiation-associated temporal bone tumours are presented (five squamous cell carcinomas, one osteogenic sarcoma and one chondrosarcoma). The initial nasopharyngeal disease for which radiotherapy was indicated was nasopharyngeal carcinoma (six patients) and nasopharyngeal lymphoma (one patient). The latency period between radiotherapy and presentation of temporal bone tumours ranged from five years to 30 years with a mean of 12.9 years. All the patients underwent surgical tumour resection. Three patients had post-operative radiotherapy and one patient underwent pre- and post-operative chemotherapy. Two patients died from the disease within three months of treatment with one patient surviving 36 months at the time of writing. One patient died from an unrelated medical condition three months after surgery. With refinement in radiotherapy techniques and the resultant increase in patient survival, there may be more patients with radiation-associated tumours in the future. It remains imperative for clinicians to be vigilant when patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with otological symptoms as the key to the successful management of this condition lies in the early detection and expedient treatment of this difficult disease.
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keywords = neoplasm
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9/185. life threatening laryngeal toxicity following treatment with combined chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a case report with review of the literature.

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare cancer in Western society, however there is a higher incidence in Asian. Chinese and African populations. A significant number of Asians reside in australia, and consequently patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma are an increasing clinical problem. Radiotherapy has been the predominant treatment in the past, but more recently multi-modality treatments have been utilised. The results of an Intergroup trial, coordinated by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) demonstrated markedly superior progression free and overall survival for combined chemoradiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone. At three years progression free survival was 24% for the radiotherapy arm and 69% for the chemoradiotherapy group (P < 0.001), and three-year survival was 47% for the radiotherapy arm compared with 78% for the combined arm (P = 0.005). There was minimum toxicity reported for either of the arms and no treatment related deaths. Based on these survival data the administration of concomitant cisplatin and radiotherapy has become standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the USA. Our institution has also adopted a similar combined therapy protocol for patients with stage III and IV nasopharyngeal cancer and good performance status. The patients treated at our institution have experienced significant side effects. We describe the case of a woman so treated with this protocol who subsequently developed severe life threatening laryngeal necrosis.
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ranking = 0.37810874907255
keywords = cancer
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10/185. Spontaneous epidural haematoma associated with radiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    We report a case of spontaneous epidural haemorrhage associated with metastatic radiation-induced malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the dural meninges in a patient who had been previously treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy.
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ranking = 67.959491834545
keywords = radiation-induced
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