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1/5. Idiopathic "benign" intracranial hypertension: case series and review.

    Idiopathic "benign" intracranial hypertension is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, giving special attention to treatments used. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension between 1984 and 1995. Subjects included 23 females and ranged in age from 2 to 17.5 years. headache was the most common symptom, followed by nausea and vomiting, double vision, and visual loss. papilledema was the most common sign. Others were VIth cranial nerve palsy and compromised visual acuity at or within 3 months of presentation. Management included administration of acetazolamide or corticosteroids, lumboperitoneal shunt, optic nerve fenestration, and repeat lumbar puncture. Treatment combinations were used in 40% of cases. During follow-up, headache, papilledema, and decreased visual acuity persisted for longer than 10 months in a significant number of patients. We conclude that idiopathic intracranial hypertension causes significant short- and long-term morbidity with no proven effective treatment available. A prospective study is needed to establish the indications for treatment and the efficacy of the treatments used.
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ranking = 1
keywords = puncture
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2/5. pneumocephalus following an epidural blood patch.

    pneumocephalus is a rare complication of epidural block. We report a case of pneumocephalus complicating an epidural blood patch performed 3 days after unintentional dural puncture. pneumocephalus may occur during an epidural blood patch procedure, even if the epidural needle tip is within the epidural space.
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keywords = puncture
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3/5. Post-dural puncture thoracic pain without headache: relief with epidural blood patch.

    We report two unusual cases of postural, post-dural puncture upper thoracic interscapular backache, without headache, that were relieved by epidural blood patching. There is controversy concerning the aetiology of headache associated with the post-dural puncture syndrome. Mechanisms previously proposed have included traction on pain-sensitive intracranial structures such as the dura or blood vessels, or a vascular mechanism which may be adenosine-receptor mediated. These two cases suggest that traction on cervical or upper thoracic nerve roots should be considered as a possible mechanism of pain in the post-dural puncture syndrome.
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ranking = 7
keywords = puncture
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4/5. pneumocephalus following the treatment of a postdural puncture headache with an epidural saline infusion.

    We report a case of pneumocephalus following the attempted treatment of a postdural puncture headache by a continuous epidural saline infusion. Within 1 hour of infusion, symptoms of a severe headache, nausea, and vomiting prompted a computerized tomographic scan of the head that showed 12 to 15 ml of air in the cranium. The epidural space was located easily with the loss-of-resistance technique using 3 ml of air. A saline bolus and infusion were initiated after confirmation of correct placement of the epidural catheter. We suggest that air passed from the negative-pressure epidural space through the dural puncture created by the diagnostic spinal tap, producing a pneumocephalus.
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ranking = 6
keywords = puncture
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5/5. Postdural puncture symptoms in a child.

    An 11-year-old boy suffered an inadvertent dural puncture during placement of an epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia. He developed symptoms of mild headache only, but severe and protracted orthostatic nausea and dizziness, which eventually resolved completely following epidural blood patch. His symptoms were atypical and could have been misinterpreted in the context of dural puncture for diagnosis, or for administration of intrathecal chemotherapy. The reported incidence of headache following dural puncture in children is low. It may be that the manifestations are different from those of adults and that the true incidence of symptoms related to leakage of cerebrospinal fluid is higher in children than currently recognised.
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ranking = 7
keywords = puncture
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