Cases reported "Neck Injuries"

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1/11. Sequential endovascular coil embolization for a traumatic cervical vertebral AV fistula.

    An arteriovenous (AV) fistula involving the cervical vertebral artery is rare. Iatrogenic injury from percutaneous puncture and penetrating wounds are the most common causes. Symptoms include tinnitus and the presence of a pulsatile mass with a thrill. Conservative treatment with coil embolization and preservation of the vertebral artery is an alternative to surgical intervention. We report a patient who developed an AV fistula involving the vertebral artery and internal jugular vein following surgical repair of a stab wound to the neck. The sequential endovascular coil embolism was performed with subsequent successful occlusion of fistula. No neurological deficit developed during or after intervention. This approach appears to be a safe method in the treatment of vertebral AV fistula.
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2/11. Use of a silicone T-tube for management of a tracheal injury in a patient with cervical blunt trauma.

    A 71-year-old woman fell forward hitting the anterior part of her neck against a table. bronchoscopy revealed deformation of the cartilage crescent in the cervical trachea (suggestive of cartilage contusion) and a longitudinal tear in the membranous region. Because subcutaneous emphysema and dyspnea developed and progressed, we made a tracheostomy and inserted a silicone T-tube through the stoma to relieve intraluminal pressure. This then served as a stent for the airway after the patient had progressed through the acute stage. The subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum abated gradually during the 7 days after insertion of the T-tube, which remained in the cervical trachea as a tracheal stent for 2 months thereafter. The T-tube is easy to manage and can be inserted through the stoma without major surgery. As an alternative to tracheotomy, the T-tube is nonirritating, allows speech, aspiration of sputum, and respiration through the nasopharynx, and in general requires little if any special maintenance or cleaning. Furthermore, a relatively long T-tube can be used, and so the stent can occupy a longer section of the trachea than can a tracheostomy tube. We recommend the placement of a T-tube to provide a useful stent for cervical tracheal injury.
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3/11. Expanded occipito-cervico-pectoral flap for reconstruction of burned cervical contracture.

    Postburn neck contracture and hypertrophic scarring can cause functional limitation and aesthetic disfigurement. Reconstruction of severe deformities and scar of neck following healing from burns confronts the surgeon with some of the most challenging problems in reconstructive surgery. Through knowledge of available reconstructive technique accurate diagnosis of tissue deficiency and secondary distortion, imaginative planning and definitive, careful execution of ones surgical plan are the bare minimum items for achieving improvement in a burned deformed neck. The aim of this article is to assess the role of expanded occipito-cervico-pectoral (o-c-p) flap for reconstruction in a series of four patients with severe burn scar of neck and involvement of shoulder back but intact anterior aspect of chest. This is an alternative method of reconstruction burn scar of neck area.
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4/11. Novel treatment of basilar invagination resulting from an untreated C-1 fracture associated with transverse ligament avulsion. Case report and description of surgical technique.

    The authors describe the case of a traumatic C-1 ring fracture and transverse ligament injury in an otherwise healthy adult woman; the lesion was essentially untreated for 3 months and resulted in basilar invagination. On presentation 3 months postinjury, the patient complained of severe increasing suboccipital pain and a grinding sensation in her upper neck. Axial computerized tomography (CT) scans revealed a C-1 ring fracture, basilar invagination with the dens abutting the clivus, and significant lateral splaying of the C-1 lateral masses. Flexion-extension radiography demonstrated abnormal motion at the atlantoaxial junction. A unique surgical technique was used to address simultaneously the C1-2 instability, the displaced C-1 fracture, and basilar invagination without having to perform occipital fixation. The authors believe that an understanding of the mechanism of the cranial settling in this case (further splaying of the C-1 lateral masses and downward migration of the occipital condyles) permitted full reduction of the deformity; this was accomplished by performing a horizontal reduction of the C-1 lateral masses, using direct C-1 lateral mass screws, a rod compressor, and a cross-link. Postoperative CT scanning confirmed the success of reduction. The results in this report highlight a rare but important complication of untreated C-1 fracture and ligament disruption, and the authors describe a novel treatment technique with which to restore vertical alignment and preserve occipital C-1 motion. A variation of this technique may also be used to treat Type II transverse ligament injuries associated with C-1 ring fractures as an alternative to halo immobilization.
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5/11. Late-onset congestive heart failure with multiple carotid-jugular fistulae and pseudoaneurysm after penetration injury.

    Trauma-acquired multiple arteriovenous fistulae with late-onset congestive heart failure has not been documented. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with progressive congestive heart failure 25 years after a penetrating trauma to the left side of the neck. The neck duplex showed a large shunt between the carotid artery and internal jugular vein. Arteriography showed three high-flow arteriovenous fistulae between these two vessels. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed a carotid pseudoaneurysm originating from three different loci of the carotid artery with a large aneurysm-venous communication between the pseudoaneurysm and the internal jugular vein. Reconstruction of contrast MRA showed three different arteriovenous fistulae, leading to the decision to perform aneurysmectomy, carotid artery repair and jugular vein patch angioplasty. The favorable outcome of this case illustrates that surgery is a reasonable alternative when an endovascular approach is not feasible in patients with trauma-acquired arteriovenous fistulae.
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6/11. Difficult airway management.

    airway management is unequivocally the most important responsibility of the emergency physician. No matter how prepared for the task, no matter what technologies are utilized, there will be cases that are difficult. The most important part of success in the management of a difficult airway is preparation. When the patient is encountered, it is too late to check whether appropriate equipment is available, whether a rescue plan has been in place, and what alternative strategies are available for an immediate response. The following article will review the principles of airway management with an emphasis upon preparation, strategies for preventing or avoiding difficulties, and recommended technical details that hopefully will encourage the reader to be more prepared and technically skillful in practice.
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7/11. Diagnosis and treatment of persistent pain after trauma to the head and neck.

    PURPOSE: A retrospective and prospective study on 22 cases of persistent pain after trauma to the head and neck is presented. According to the predominant symptoms and signs, pain patterns could be divided into musculoskeletal, vascular, and neuropathic, facilitating treatment decisions. Most cases were musculoskeletal in origin, with many demonstrating a combination of two or three pain states. RESULTS: The variety of pain complaints and their underlying pathophysiology are discussed and treatments for specific pain states are examined. CONCLUSION: amitriptyline was the most useful drug in that it provided pain relief in musculoskeletal, vascular, and some neuropathic pain conditions. Multidrug therapy may be indicated in some recalcitrant cases, and drug alternatives are discussed.
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8/11. Strangulation associated with a passive restraint shoulder harness seatbelt: case report.

    Diagonal shoulder harness restraint devices have been implicated as causes of neck trauma in motor vehicle accidents. This type of seatbelt is commonly used as an alternative to airbags in required passive restraint systems. A case of strangulation secondary to an automatically engaging diagonal shoulder harness used without the accompanying lap seatbelt is reported.
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9/11. Reconstruction of anterior neck contractures with sensate expanded radial forearm free flap.

    The surgical management of anterior neck contractures, related to burn injuries, is a challenging problem for reconstructive surgeons. The use of sensate expanded radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flaps in two patients suffering from anterior burn contractures of the neck is presented as an alternative method of surgical management. The advantages of employing sensate expanded radial forearm free flaps to reconstruct anterior neck contractures are also discussed in this paper.
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10/11. Blunt internal carotid artery trauma: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Blunt injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare entity that should be considered by Maxillofacial surgeons in patients with facial fractures. Its recognition is often delayed because of the common association with other severe multi-system injuries. early diagnosis is the key to successful management; the arteriography plays a confirmatory role on the diagnosis and determines whether surgical management of the injury is feasible. Therapeutic alternatives vary from one center to another; they include observation, conservative treatment, anticoagulation, ligation of the carotid artery with or without extracranial-intracranial bypass, and arterial reconstruction.
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